Russian Journal of Plant Physiology

, Volume 65, Issue 4, pp 570–578 | Cite as

Effect of 24-Epibrassinolide on Antioxidative Defence System Against Lead-Induced Oxidative Stress in The Roots of Brassica juncea L. Seedlings

  • E. DalyanEmail author
  • E. Yüzbaşıoğlu
  • I. Akpınar
Research Papers


Lead (Pb) toxicity causes oxidative stress by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) on the antioxidant defence system as a response to Pb stress in Brassica juncea L. Surface-sterilized seeds were exposed to Pb ion (0 and 2 mM) toxicity in Petri dishes and subsequently, the seeds were sprayed with either (i) deionized water or (ii) different concentrations (10–12, 10–10, and 10–8 M) of 24-EBL on alternate days. After nine days, the roots of the B. juncea seedlings were harvested to analyze the heavy metal content, root length, hydrogen peroxide level, lipid peroxidation, total protein content and activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase). According to our results, the Pb ions accumulated by the B. juncea roots led to oxidative stress by increasing the level of H2O2 and malondialdehyde, and thus, increased the activity of the antioxidative enzymes (except for catalase) and the growth and total protein content decreased. Whereas, the 24-EBL treatment to the roots of Pb stressed seedlings was able to alleviate the Pb-induced oxidative stress. Upon the application of 24-EBL, a reduction in Pb accumulation, H2O2 and malondialdehyde levels as well as an increased total protein content and activity of antioxidative enzymes detoxifying hydrogen peroxide (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase) were observed. As a result, the stress protective properties of 24-EBL depending on concentration in B. juncea roots were revealed in this study.


Brassica juncea lead stress brassinosteroid antioxidative enzyme catalase peroxidase 







Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Fahr, M., Laplaze, L., Bendaou, N., Hocher, V., Mzibri, M.E., Bogusz, D., and Smouni, A., Effect of lead on root growth, Front. Plant Sci., 2013, vol. 4, pp. 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pourrut, B., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., Winterton, P., and Pinelli, E., Lead uptake, toxicity, and detoxification in plants, Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 2011, vol. 213, pp. 113–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Caverzan, A., Casassola, A., and Brammer, S.P., Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes involved in plant tolerance to stress, abiotic and biotic stress in plants, in Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Plants—Recent Advances and Future Perspectives, Shanker, A.K. and Shanker, C., Eds., Rijeka: InTech, 2016, pp. 463–480.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arora, P., Bhardwaj, R., and Kanwar, M.K., Effect of 24-epibrassinolide on growth, protein content and antioxidative defense system of Brassica juncea L. subjected to cobalt ion toxicity, Acta Physiol. Plant., 2012, vol. 34, pp. 2007–2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Khripach, V.A., Zhabinskii, V.N., and de Groot, A.E., Twenty years of brassinosteroids: steroidal plant hormones warrant better crops for the XXI century, Ann. Bot., 2000, vol. 86, pp. 441–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marakli, S., and Gözükirmizi, N., Abiotic stress alleviation with brassinosteroids in plant roots, in Abiotic and Biotic Stress, Shanker, A.K. and Shanker, C., Eds., Rijeka: InTech, 2016, pp. 373–394.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ramakrishna, B. and Rao, S.S., Foliar application of brassinosteroids alleviates adverse effects of zinc toxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants, Protoplasma, 2015, vol. 252, pp. 665–677.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Soares, C., de Sousa, A., Pinto, A., Azenha, M., Teixeira, J., Azevedo, R.A., and Fidalgo, F., Effect of 24-epibrassinolide on ROS content, antioxidant system, lipid peroxidation and Ni uptake in Solanum nigrum L. under Ni stress, Environ. Exp. Bot., 2016, vol. 122, pp. 115–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ali, B., Hayat, S., Fariduddin, Q., and Ahmad, A., 24-Epibrassinolide protects against the stress generated by salinity and nickel in Brassica juncea, Chemosphere, 2008, vol. 72, pp. 1387–1392.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Velikova, V., Yordanov, I., and Edreva, A., Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain-treated bean plants: protective role of exogenous polyamines, Plant Sci., 2000, vol. 151, pp. 59–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jiang, M. and Zhang, J., Effect of abscisic acid on active oxygen species, antioxidative defense system and oxidative damage in leaves of maize seedlings, Plant Cell Physiol., 2001, vol. 42, pp. 1265–1273.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Beuchamp, C. and Fridovich, I., Superoxide dismutase: improved assays and an assay applicable to acrylamide gels, Anal. Biochem., 1971, vol. 44, pp. 276–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Methoden der Enzymatischen Analyse, Bergmeyer, H.U., Ed., Berlin: Verlag Chemie, 1970.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nakano, Y. and Asada, K., Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts, Plant Cell Physiol., 1981, vol. 22, pp. 867–880.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Herzog, V. and Fahimi, H., Determination of the activity of peroxidase, Anal. Biochem., 1973, vol. 55, pp. 554–562.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Foyer, C.H. and Halliwell, B., The presence of glutathione and glutathione reductase in chloroplast: a proposed role in ascorbic acid metabolism, Planta, 1976, vol. 133, pp. 21–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Habig, W.H. and Jacoby, W.B., Assays for differentiation of glutathione S-transferases, Methods Enzymol., 1981, vol. 77, pp. 398–405.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bradford, M.M., A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein–dye binding, Anal. Biochem., 1976, vol. 72, pp. 248–254.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dalyan, E., Yüzbasioglu, E., Keskin, B.C., Yildizhan, Y., Memon, A., Ünal, M., and Yüksel, B., The identification of genes associated with Pb and Cd response mechanism in Brassica juncea L. by using Arabidopsis expression array, Environ. Exp. Bot., 2017, vol. 139, pp. 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bajguz, A., Brassinosteroids and lead as stimulators of phytochelatins synthesis in Chlorella vulgaris, J. Plant Physiol., 2002, vol. 159, pp. 321–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fariduddin, Q., Ahmed, M., Mir, B.A., Yusuf, M., and Khan, T.A., 24-Epibrassinolide mitigates the adverse effects of manganese induced toxicity through improved antioxidant system and photosynthetic attributes in Brassica juncea, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 2015, vol. 22, pp. 11349–11359.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang, C., Zhang, S.H., Wang, P.F., Qian, J., Hou, J., Zhang, W.J., and Lu, J., Excess Zn alters the nutrient uptake and induces the antioxidative responses in submerged plant Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle, Chemosphere, 2009, vol. 76, pp. 938–945.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Huang, H., Gupta, D.K., Tian, S., Yang, X.E., and Li, T., Lead tolerance and physiological adaptation mechanism in roots of accumulating and non-accumulating ecotypes of Sedum alfredii, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 2012, vol. 19, pp. 1640–1651.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ramakrishna, B. and Rao, S.S., 24-Epibrassinolide alleviated zinc-induced oxidative stress in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings by enhancing antioxidative system, Plant Growth Regul., 2012, vol. 68, pp. 249–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sharma, P., Kumar, A., and Bhardwaj, R., Plant steroidal hormone epibrassinolide regulate—Heavy metal stress tolerance in Oryza sativa L. by modulating antioxidant defense expression, Environ. Exp. Bot., 2016, vol. 122, pp. 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Swamy, K.N., Vardhini, B.V., Ramakrishna, B., Anuradha, S., Siddulu, N., and Rao, S.S.R., Role of 28-homobrassinolide on growth biochemical parameters of Trigonella foenu-graecum L. plants subjected to lead toxicity, Int. J. Multidiscip. Curr. Res., 2014, vol. 2, pp. 317–321.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sharma, P., Bhardwaj, R., Arora, N., Arora, H.K., and Kumar, A., Effects of 28-homobrassinolide on nickel uptake, protein content and antioxidative defence system in Brassica juncea, Biol. Plant., 2008, vol. 52, pp. 767–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Verma, S. and Dubey, R.S., Lead toxicity induces lipid peroxidation and alters the activities of antioxidant enzymes in growing rice plants, Plant Sci., 2003, vol. 164, pp. 645–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sharma, N., Hundal, G.S., Sharma, I., and Bhardwaj, R., 28-Homobrassinolide alters protein content and activities of glutathione S-transferase and polyphenol oxidase in Raphanus sativus L. plants under heavy metal stress, Toxicol. Int., 2014, vol. 21, pp. 44–50.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sharma, I., Pati, P.K., and Bhardwaj, R., Effect of 28-homobrassinolide on antioxidant defence system in Raphanus sativus L. under chromium toxicity, Ecotoxicology, 2011, vol. 20, pp. 862–874.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Botany, Faculty of ScienceIstanbul UniversitySüleymaniye, IstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Institute of SciencesIstanbul UniversityVezneciler, IstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations