Advertisement

Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation

, Volume 26, Issue 7, pp 755–770 | Cite as

Reef Construction in the Second Half of the Permian and Biotic Crisis at the Permian–Triassic Boundary

  • V. G. KuznetsovEmail author
Article

Abstract

The Middle–Late Permian reefs were formed in two paleogeographic realms: North Pangaea and Tethyan Realm. The basic reef builders in the first realm were representatives of Calcispongiae and Bryozoa; in the second realm, sphinctozoans, corals, and stromatoporoids. In these realms, various algae and cyanobacteria communities were of importance. Reef construction in the first realm associated with arid climatic conditions, isolation of water basins, and accumulation of salt-bearing sequences came to the end in the early Late Permian. Reef construction in the Tethyan Realm occurred in the Late Permian up to the Permian–Triassic boundary. The termination of reef construction was due to features of the reef ecosystem, which turned out to be unstable against the background of variations in the conditions and mass extinction at the Permian–Triassic boundary and dissociated before the termination of this extinction.

Keywords:

reef construction Middle and Late Permian reefs biotic crisis Permian–Triassic boundary 

Notes

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my gratitude to E.Ya. Leven, I.S. Barskov, Yu.D. Zakharov, T.B. Leonova, and N.L. Fortunatova for important and extremely useful comments, consultations on the Permian stratigraphy, and providing us with additional information on the problems and to postgraduate student Liu Shiqi for assistance in obtaining publications on reefs of China, Chinese–Russian translation of the article, and assistance in graphic design of the given manuscript.

Reviewers Yu.D. Zakharov, T.B. Leonova, and N.K. Fortunatova

REFRENCES

  1. 1.
    Barskov, I.S., On the diversity of the Permian reefs, in Mater. Vseross. litol. soveshch. “Rify i karbonatnye psefitolity” (Proc. All-Russ. Lithol. Conf. “Reefs and Carbonate Psephytoliths”), Syktyvkar, 2010, pp. 23–25.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Belyaeva, G.V., Zakharov, Yu.D., Kiseleva, A.V., and Nikitina, A.P., Late Permian reef-building assemblages in the South Primorie, in Sovremennye i drevnie rifovye sistemy (Modern and Ancient Reef Systems), Vladivostok, 1987, pp. 11–13.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boiko, E.V., Belyaeva, G.V., and Zhuravleva, I.T., Sfinktozoa fanerozoya SSSR (Sphinctozoans from the Phanerozoic of the USSR), Moscow: Nauka, 1991 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Copper, P., Reefs during the multiple crises towards the Ordovician–Silurian boundary: Anticosty island, eastern Canada, and worldwide, Can. J. Earth Sci., 2001, vol. 38, pp. 153–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Development and change of marine organisms at the Paleozoic–Mesozoic boundary, in Tr. PIN AN SSSR. T. 108 (Trans. Paleontol. Inst. Acad. Sci. USSR. Vol. 108), Moscow: Nauka, 1965.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dyjaczynski, R., Gorski, M., Mamczur, S., and Perit, T.M., Reefs in the basinal facies of the Zechstein limestone (Upper Permian) of Western Poland: a new gas play, J. Petrol. Geol., 2001, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 265–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Enos, P., The Permian of China, in The Permian of Northern Pangea, Springer, 1995, vol. 2, pp. 225–256.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fan, J. and Zhang, W., Sphinctozoans from late Permian reefs of Lichuan, West Hibei, China, Facies, 1985, vol. 13.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fan, J., Ma, X., Zhang, Y., and Zhang, W., The Upper Permian reefs in West Hubei, China, Facies, 1982, vol. 6, pp. 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Flügel, E., Pangean shelf carbonates: controls and paleoclimatic significance of Permian and Triassic reefs, in Pangea: Paleoclimate, Tectonics, and Sedimentation during Accretion, Zenith and Breakup of Supercontinent, Klein, G.D., Ed., Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap., 1994, no. 288, pp. 247–266.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Flügel, E. and Reinhardt, J., Uppermost Permian reefs in Skyros (Greece) and Sichuan (China): implications for the Late Permian extinction event, Palaios, 1989, vol. 4, pp. 502–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Flügel, E. and Stanley, G., Reorganization, development and evolution of post-Permian reefs and reef organisms, Palaeontologr. Am., 1984, no. 54, pp. 175–186.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Geologiya SSSR. T. 9. Severnyi Kavkaz (Geology of the USSR. Vol. 9. Northern Caucasus), Moscow: Nedra, 1968 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Golonka, J., Plate-tectonic maps of the Phanerozoic, in Phanerozoic Reef Patterns. SEPM Spec. Publ., 2001, no. 72, pp. 21–75.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Grachevskii, M.M., Berlin, Yu.M., Dubovskoi, I.T., and Ul’mishek, G.F., Korrelyatsiya raznofatsial’nykh tolshch pri poiskakh nefti i gaza. Izd. 2 (Correlation of Variable-Facies Sequences in the Prospecting for Oil and Gas, 2nd ed. Moscow: Nedra, 1976 [in Russian]. Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kerkmann, K., Riffe und Algenbänke im Zechstein von Thüringen, Freiberg. Forschungsh. C, 1969, no. 252.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kiersnowski, H., Paul, J., Perit, T.M., and Smith, D.B., Facies, paleogeography, and sedimentary history of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe, in The Permian of Northern Pangea, Springer, 1995, vol. 2, pp. 119–136.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    King, P.B., The Evolution of North America, Princeton, N.J., Princeton Univ. Press, 1959.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    King, P.B., Permian of west Texas and southeastern New Mexico, AAPG Bull., 1942, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 535–763.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kotlyar, G.V., Vuks, G.P., Kropacheva, G.S., and Kushnar’, L.V., Nakhodka reef and the position of the Lyudyanza horizon (Southern Primorie) in the Permian stage scale of the Tethyan Realm, in Problemy biostratigrafii permi i triasa vostoka SSSR (Problems in Biostratigraphy of Permian and Triassic of the USSR), Vladivostok, 1987, pp. 54–63.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kotlyar, G.V., Nikitina, A.P., Zhuravlev, A.V., and Kosovaya, O.L., Midian (Wordian–Capitanian) transit fauna of Southeast Asia, Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol., 2003, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 33–48.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kotlyar, G.V., Zakharov, Y.D., and Polubotko, I.V., Late Changhsingian fauna of the Northwestern Caucasus Mountains, Russia, J. Paleontol., 2004, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 513–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kotlyar, G.V., Belyansky, G.C., Burago, V.I., et al., South Primorye, Far East Russia – a key region for global Permian correlation, J. Asian Earth Sci., 2006, vol. 26, pp. 280–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kuznetsov, V.G., Upper Jurassic bryazoan–algal reefs of the Schwäbische and Fränkische Albian (the southern part of the Federal Republic of Germany), in Evolyutsiya karbonatonakopleniya v istorii Zemli (Evolution of the Carbonate Formation in the Earth’s History), Moscow: Nauka, 1988, pp. 167–186.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kuznetsov, V.G. and Zhuravleva, L.M Reef formations in the West Canada Basin and their oil and gas potential, Lithol. Miner. Resour., 2018а, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 236–251.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kuznetsov, V.G. and Zhuravleva, L.M., Devonian reef formation in the frame of the Caspian Depression, Lithol. Miner. Resour., 2018b, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 394–403.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kuznetsov, V.G., Kurtse, M., Smil’gis, P.I., et al., Lower Zechstein reefs of the Eastern Europe, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR. Ser. Geol., 1984, no. 1, pp. 51–65.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Leinfelder, R.R. and Krauter, M., Laternser., R., et al., The origin of Jurassic reefs: current research developments and results, Facies, 1994, vol. 31, pp. 1–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Leonova, T.B., Esaulova, N.K., and Shilovskii, O.P., The first find of Kazanian ammonoids in the Volga–Ural Region, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 2002, vol. 383, no. 4, pp. 509–511.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shushun, Li, Dacheng, Liu, and Shunhua, Gu, Characteristics of the Honghua Reef in Kai Country of Sichuan and its significance in finding the new types hydrocarbon reservoir, Oil Gas Geol., 1985, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 24–28 [in Chinese, with English abstract].Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Liebe, Th., Chemische und geognostische Untersuchungen ueber den Zechstein des Orla-Nhales, Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Geog., Geol. Petref., 1853, no. 1, pp. 769–785.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Huaibo, Liu, Rigby, J.K., Guisen, Li., et al., Upper Permian carbonate buildups and associated lithofacies, Western Hubei–Eastern Sichuan Provinces, China, AAPG Bull., 1991, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 1447–1467.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Magdefrau, K., Der Aufbau der Thüringischen Zechstein–Riffe, Natur und Volk, 1937, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 48–58.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mazzullo, S.J., Permian stratigraphy and facies, Permian basin (Texas–New Mexico) and adjoining areas in the Midcontinent United States, in The Permian of Northern Pangea, Springer, 1995, vol. 2, pp. 41–60.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Newell, N.D., Fisher, A.G., Rigby, J.K., et al., The Permian reef complex of the Guadalupe Mountains Region, Texas and New Mexico, in A Study in Paleontology, San Francisco: Frieman, 1953. Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schlotheim, E.V., von II., Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte der Versteinerungen in geognostischer Hinsicht, Denkschr. Keiserl. Akad. Wiss. München. Math.-Phys., 1816/1817, Bd. II, pp. 13–36.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Stemmerik, L., Permian history of the Norvegian–Greenland sea area, in The Permian of Northern Pangea, Springer, 1995, vol. 2, pp. 98–118.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stemmerik, L. and Worsley, D., Permian history of the Barents shelf area, in The Permian of Northern Pangea, Springer, 1995, vol. 2, pp. 81–97.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Suveizdis, P.I., Upper Permian sediments of the Polish–Lithuanian Synclise, in Voprosy geologii Litvy (The Problems of Geology of the Lithuana), Vilnius, 1963, pp. 225–373.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Walther, I., Geologische Heimatskunde von Thüringen. 3. Aufg., Iena, 1906.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Weidlich, O., Middle and late Permian reefs—distributional patterns and reservoir potential, in Phanerozoic Reef Patterns. SEPM Spec. Publ., 2001, no. 72, pp. 339–390.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Xichun, Wu, Xiaozeng, Lin, Zhonglun, Yang, and Xinsheng, Chen, Formation of reef-bound reservoirs of Upper Permian Changxing formation in East Sichuan, Oil Gas Geol., 1990, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 283–299 [in Chinese, with English abstract].Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhuravleva, L.M., Influence of the Frasnian–Famennian extinction event on the reef development within the Pechora syneclise, Geol. Explor., 2017, no. 1, pp. 30–36.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and GasMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations