Serotonergic Mechanisms in Locomotor Effects of Electrical Spinal Cord Stimulation
- 18 Downloads
Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord (ESSC) is a method enabling researchers to confirm the existence of the stepping movement generator in humans. Currently, the ESSC-based technologies of motor rehabilitation of patients immobilized after spinal cord injury are actively developing. The impact of the serotonergic system in the organization of movement is intensively studied both at the systemic and the molecular–cellular level in a large number of researches. The aim of this review was to analyze the current experimental data on the participation of serotonergic system in the locomotor activity control at the spinal level with a focus on the processes related to electrical stimulation of spinal locomotor networks. Special interest is given to the serotonin-based regulation of human motor activity. The data on the use of serotonin-modulating pharmacotherapy for increasing the efficacy of the ESSC method in locomotor rehabilitation are presented in the final part of the review.
Keywords:spinal cord 5-HT serotonergic system electrical stimulation rehabilitation
The authors thank Yu. P. Gerasimenko, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), for recommendations in the selection of materials for the review and I. B. Kozlovskaya, Corresponding Member of the RAS, for advices and help in editing the text.
The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 16-29-08277.
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
The authors declare the absence of obvious and potential conflicts of interests associated with the publication of this review.
- 8.Ikoeva, G.A., Nikityuk, I.E., Kivoenko, O.I., et al., Clinical-neurological and neurophysiological assessment of the efficiency of locomotor rehabilitation in children with cerebral palsy using robotic mechanotherapy and transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the spinal cord, Ortop., Travmatol. Vosstanovittel’naya Khir. Detskogo Vozrasta, 2016, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 47.Google Scholar
- 15.Hochman, S., Garraway, S.M., Machacek, D.W., and Shay, B.L., 5-HT receptors and the neuromodulatory control of spinal cord function, in Motor Neurobiology of the Spinal Cord, Cope, T.C., Ed., Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2001, p. 47.Google Scholar
- 16.Ghosh, M. and Pearse, D.D., The role of the serotonergic system in locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury, Front. Neural Circ., 2015, vol. 8, p. 151.Google Scholar
- 19.Branchereau, P., Chapron, J., and Meyrand, P., Descending 5-hydroxytryptamine raphe inputs repress the expression of serotonergic neurons and slow the maturation of inhibitory systems in mouse embryonic spinal cord, J. Neurosci., 2002, vol. 22, no. 7, p. 2598.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Pavlova, N.V., Moshonkina, T.R., Gilerovich, E.G., and Gerasimenko, Yu.P., Histological study of serotonergic structures in the rat spinal cord in normal and after complete transection, Trudy VII Vserossiiskoi Shkoly-konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem po fiziologii myshts i myshechnoi deyatel’nosti “Novye podkhody k izucheniyu klassicheskikh problem,” Moskva, 29 yanvarya–1 fevralya 2013 g. (Proc. VII All-Russ. School-Conf. with Int. Participation on Physiology of Muscles and Muscular Activity “New Approaches to the Study of Traditional Problems,” Moscow, January 29–February 1, 2013), Moscow, 2013, p. 59.Google Scholar
- 50.Sławińska, U., Miazga, K., and Jordan, L.M., 5-HT2 and 5-HT7 receptor agonists facilitate plantar stepping in chronic spinal rats through actions on different populations of spinal neurons, Front. Neural Circ., 2014, vol. 8, p. 95.Google Scholar
- 51.Sławińska, U., Miazga, K., and Jordan, L.M., The role of serotonin in the control of locomotor movements and strategies for restoring locomotion after spinal cord injury, Acta Neurobiol. Exp., 2014, vol. 74, no. 2, p. 172.Google Scholar
- 60.Musienko, P.E., Spinal-stem mechanisms of integrative control of posture and locomotion, Extended Abstract of Doctoral (Med.) Dissertation, Moscow: Pavlov Inst. Physiol., Russ. Acad. Sci., 2014.Google Scholar
- 63.Radhakrishna, M., Steuer, I., Prince, F., et al., Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized phase I/IIa study (safety and efficacy) with buspirone/levodopa/carbidopa (SpinalonTM) in subjects with complete AIS A or motor-complete AIS B spinal cord injury, Curr. Pharm. Des., 2017, vol. 23, no. 12, p. 1789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 65.Bloch, J., Lacour, S.P., and Courtine, G., Electronic dura mater meddling in the central nervous system, J.A.M.A. Neurol., 2017, vol. 74, no. 4, p. 470.Google Scholar