The Influence of Leukocytes on the Activity of Cardiovascular System in Women with High Blood Pressure


Thirty apparently healthy elderly women and 72 women diagnosed with Hypertensive Heart Disease (HHD) participated in the study. The subjects with hypertension were divided into two groups: the first group (HHD-1) included women receiving medication; the second group (HHD-2) included women receiving medication and kinesiotherapy (three or four courses regularly during the past two to three years). In elderly women with a high blood pressure, the total number of lymphocytes and eosinophils was higher than in healthy women. The women with hypertension also had higher values of stroke volume (SV), left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV), cardiac output (CO), left ventricular mass (LVDM), and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). In women with hypertension, the balance of velocity distribution in the arteries and microvasculature was shifted toward the fast interlayer processes. In women who exercised regularly, these changes were much smaller. In both healthy women and women with hypertension, there was an association between the total leukocyte count, individual types of leukocytes, the level of blood pressure, and hemodynamic parameters. The strongest relationships were observed between the number of eosinophils and the blood pressure.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA


  1. 1

    Tanaka, M., Fukui, M., Tomiyasu, K., et al., Eosinophil count is positively correlated with coronary artery calcification, Hypertens Res., 2012, vol. 35, no. 3, p. 325.

  2. 2

    Tian, Z., Fang, Q., Zhao, D.C., et al., Theclinico-pathological manifestation of cardiac involvement in eosinophilic diseases, Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi, 2010, vol. 49, no. 8, p. 684.

  3. 3

    Verdoia, M., Schaffer, A., Barbieri, L., et al., Eosinophils count and periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions, Atherosclerosis, 2014, vol. 236, no. 1, p. 169.

  4. 4

    Withers, S.B., Forman, R., Meza-Perez, S., et al., Eosinophils are key regulators of perivascular adipose tissue and vascular functionality, Sci. Rep., 2017, vol. 7, p. 44571.

  5. 5

    Weng, M., Baron, D.M., Bloch, K.D., et al., Eosinophils are necessary for pulmonary arterial remodeling in a mouse model of eosinophilic inflammation-induced pulmonary hypertension, Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol., 2011, vol. 301, no. 6, p. 927.

  6. 6

    Kalay, N., Dogdu, O., Koc, F., et al., Hematologic parameters and angiographic progression of coronary atherosclerosis, Angiology, 2012, vol. 63, no. 3, p. 213.

  7. 7

    Balta, S., Kurtoglu, E., Kucuk, U., et al., Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as an important assessment tool, Exp. Rev. Cardiovasc. Ther., 2014, vol. 12, no. 5, p. 537.

  8. 8

    Harbaum, L., Baaske, K.M., Simon, M., et al., Exploratory analysis of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, BMC Pulm. Med., 2017, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 72.

  9. 9

    Woollard, K.J. and Geissmann, F., Monocytes in atherosclerosis: subsets and functions, Nat. Rev. Cardiol., 2010, vol. 7, p. 77.

  10. 10

    Ozaki, Y., Imanishi, T., Taruya, A., et al., Circulating CD14+ CD16+ monocyte subsets as biomarkers of the severity of coronary artery disease in patients with stable angina pectoris, Circ. J., 2012, vol. 76, p. 2412.

  11. 11

    Schwartzenberg, S., Meledin, V., Zilberman, L., et al., Low circulating monocyte count is associated with severe aortic valve stenosis, Isr. Med. Assoc. J., 2013, vol. 15, no. 9, p. 500.

  12. 12

    Fine, I., Kuznik, B., Kaminsky, A., and Shenkman, L., A non-invasive method for the assessment of hemostasis in vivo by using dynamic light scattering, Laser Phys., 2012, vol. 22, no. 2, p. 1.

  13. 13

    Fine, I., Kaminsky, A.V., and Shenkman, L., A new sensor for stress measurement based on blood flow fluctuations, Proc. SPIE, 2016, vol. 9707, art. ID 970705.

  14. 14

    Fine, I., Kuznik, B., Kaminsky, A., et al., New noninvasive index for evaluation of the vascular age of healthy and sick people, J. Biomed. Opt., 2012, vol. 17, no. 8, p. 2.

  15. 15

    Harbaum, L., Baaske, K.M., Simon, M., et al., Exploratory analysis of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, BMC Pulm. Med., 2017, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 72.

  16. 16

    Julien, C., The enigma of Mayer waves: facts and models, Cardiovasc. Res., 2006, vol. 70, no. 1.P. 12.

  17. 17

    Tani, S., Nagao, K., Anazawa, T., et al., Association of leukocyte subtype counts with coronary atherosclerotic regression following pravastatin treatment, Am. J. Cardiol., 2009, vol. 104, no. 4. P.464.

  18. 18

    Vieira, R.P., Claudino, R.C., Duarte, A.C., et al., Aerobic exercise decreases chronic allergic lung inflammation and airway remodeling in mice, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 2007, vol. 176, no. 9, p. 871.

  19. 19

    Nordlohne J. and von Vietinghoff S., Interleukin 17A in atherosclerosis—Regulation and pathophysiologic effector function, Cytokine, 2017, (in press).

  20. 20

    Ketlinskii, S.A. and Simbirtsev, A.S., Tsitokiny (Cytokines), St. Peteraburg: Foliant, 2008.

  21. 21

    Bausch, D., Neutrophil granulocyte derived MMP-9 is a VEGF independent functional component of the angiogenic switch in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, Angiogenesis, 2011, no. 14, p. 235.

  22. 22

    Marchesi, C., Ebrahimian, T., Angulo, O., et al., Endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling and perivascular adipose oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to vascular dysfunction in a rodent model of metabolic syndrome, Hypertension, 2009, vol. 54, p. 1384.

  23. 23

    Ohashi, K., Adiponectin replenishment ameliorates obesity-related hypertension, Hypertension, 2006, vol. 47, p. 1108.

  24. 24

    Schiffrin, E.L., Vascular remodeling in hypertension: mechanisms and treatment, Hypertension, 2012, vol. 59, no. 2, p. 367.

  25. 25

    Liew, P.X. and Kubes, P., The neutrophil’s role during health and disease, Physiol. Rev., 2019, vol. 99, no. 2, p. 1223.

  26. 26

    Kuznik, B.I., Kletochnye i molekulyarnye mekhanizmy regulyatsii sistemy gemostaza v norme i patologii (Cellular and Molecular Regulatory Mechanisms of Hemostasis in Health and Pathology), Chita: Ekspress-Izd., 2010.

  27. 27

    Shenkman, B., Brill, I., Solpov, A., et al., CD4+ lymphocytes require platelets for adhesion to immobilized fibronectin in flow: role of β1(CD29)-, β2(CD18)-related integrins and non-integrin receptors, Cell. Immunol., 2006, vol. 242, no. 1, p. 52.

  28. 28

    Okamura, K., Okuda, T., Shirai, K., and Urata, H., Positive correlation between blood pressure or heart rate and chymase-dependent angiotensin II-forming activity in circulating mononuclear leukocytes measured by new ELISA, Clin. Exp. Hypertens., 2017, vol. 40, no. 1, p. 1.

  29. 29

    Toyama, K., Sugiyama, S., Oka, H., et al., Combination treatment of rosuvastatin or atorvastatin, with regular exercise improves arterial wall stiffness in patients with coronary artery disease, PLoS One, 2012, vol. 7, no. 7, p. e41369.

  30. 30

    Ivanov, K.P., Physiological problems of biological evolution, Usp. Fiziol. Nauk, 2005, vol. 36, no. 1, p. 85.

  31. 31

    Ushakov, A.V., Ivanchenko, V.S., and Gagarina, A.A., Specific blood pressure profile and heart rate variability in patients with arterial hypertension depending on the intensity of physical activity and psycho-emotional stress, Ross. Kardiol. Zh., 2017, no. 4, p. 23.

  32. 32

    Gomazkov, O.A., Peptidy v kardiologii (Peptides in Cardiology), Moscow: Materik Al’fa, 2000.

  33. 33

    Gomazkov, O.A., Endothelium as an endocrine tree, Priroda (Moscow), 2000, no. 5, p. 38.

  34. 34

    Kuznik, B.I., Khavinson, V.Kh., Tarnovskaya, S.I., et al., Adhesive jam-a molecule and molecular mechanisms of age pathology: a review of the literature and own data, Usp. Gerontol., 2015, vol. 28, no. 4, p. 656.

  35. 35

    Kuznik, B.I., Davydov, S.O., Stepanov, A.V., et al., Adhesive jam-a molecule and the hemostatic system in women suffering essential hypertension, Tromboz, Gemostaz, Reol., 2017, no. 3 (71), p. 22.

  36. 36

    Kuznik, B.I., Khavinson, V.Kh., Davydov, S.O., and Stepanov, A.V., Belki molodosti i starosti. Belki-markery kletochnogo stareniya i predskazateli prodolzhitel’nosti zhizni (Proteins of Youth and Old Age. Proteins as Markers of Cellular Aging and Predictors of Longevity), Saarbrucken: Palmarium, 2017.

Download references


The authors are grateful to the staff members and, especially, to Irina Anatolievna Dneprovskaya, the head of the clinical laboratory of the Akademia Zdorovia Innovation clinics, for carrying out laboratory tests.


The study was performed without supplementary fundin-g.

Author information

Correspondence to B. I. Kuznik.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest. The authors declare that they have no obvious or potential conflict of interest related to the publication of this article.

Statement of compliance with standards of research involving humans as subjects. The experiments were performed in accordance with the statement of ethical principles for biomedical research of the Declaration of Helsinki 1964 and its subsequent updates and were approved by the local Biomedical Ethical Committee of the Chita State Medical Academy (Chita). Each participant signed a voluntary written informed consent after the explanation of the potential risks and benefits of participation in the study and its specificity.

Additional information

Translated by I. Matiulko

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kuznik, B.I., Davydov, S.O., Guseva, E.S. et al. The Influence of Leukocytes on the Activity of Cardiovascular System in Women with High Blood Pressure. Hum Physiol 45, 649–657 (2019).

Download citation


  • leukocytes
  • neutrophils
  • lymphocytes
  • monocytes
  • eosinophils
  • cardiodynamics
  • hemodynamics
  • hypertension
  • moderate exercise