Phase Equilibria in the Sections of a Carbamide–Sodium Formate–Water System at 0 to –22°C and Anti-Icing Properties of the Salt Compounds

  • V. P. DanilovEmail author
  • E. A. Frolova
  • D. F. Kondakov
  • M. N. Brekhovskikh


The phase equilibria at 0 to –22°C in the sections of a carbamide–sodium formate–water system with ratios CO(NH2)2 : NaHCOO from 3 : 1 to 1 : 3 and anti-icing properties of salt compounds are studied. It is found that a compound with ratio of 1 : 1 has a temperature of the eutectic with ice of –22°C; i.e., it significantly decreases in comparison with the temperatures of the eutectics in binary systems containing carbamide or sodium formate. The compounds are characterized by a high melting capacity in relation to ice.


phase equilibria water–salt systems sodium formate carbamide anti-icing properties of salt compounds 



This work was supported by the Program of Basic Research of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences no. 39 “Basic Principles and Energy-Efficient Resource-Saving Innovation Technologies for the Processing of Mineral Raw Materials and Recycling of Industrial and Household Wastes.”


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. P. Danilov
    • 1
    Email author
  • E. A. Frolova
    • 1
  • D. F. Kondakov
    • 1
  • M. N. Brekhovskikh
    • 1
  1. 1.Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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