Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering

, Volume 52, Issue 6, pp 975–986 | Cite as

Role of Macro- and Microdistribution in the Formation of Metal and Alloy Layers in the Production of Printed Circuits and Other Components of Electronic Devices

  • S. S. KruglikovEmail author
  • V. A. Kolesnikov
  • N. E. Nekrasova
  • A. F. Gubin


The role of the macro- and microdistribution factors in the electrodeposition of metals and alloys on the components of electronic devices has been studied. There are three types of deviation of the deposition rate distribution from uniform distribution caused by differences: (1) in the surface area of ​​the cathode and dielectric sections, (2) in the deposition rate in the individual sections of one group, and (3) between the local deposition rates at different points of the surface of the individual cathode section. Methods for evaluating the microthrowing and leveling ability and predicting the microdistribution from the leveling ability data and the use of the Wagner number for evaluating the role of the macrodistribution factors were considered. Examples were given to illustrate the types of deposition rate distribution from electrolytes with positive, zero, and negative leveling ability.


electrodeposition microthrowing power leveling ability production of electronics printed circuits 



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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. S. Kruglikov
    • 1
    Email author
  • V. A. Kolesnikov
    • 1
  • N. E. Nekrasova
    • 1
  • A. F. Gubin
    • 1
  1. 1.Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of RussiaMoscowRussia

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