Russian Metallurgy (Metally)

, Volume 2019, Issue 5, pp 495–506 | Cite as

Development of the Nickel-Refining Production at Norilsk Nickel Harjavalta Oy in GMK Norilsk Nickel

  • M. N. Naftal’Email author
  • N. S. Kuznetsov
  • S. S. Naboichenko
  • K. A. Solntsev
  • V. A. Bryukvin


As a result of the innovative solutions found due to the joint efforts of Russian and Finnish researchers, the recovery of nonferrous and precious metals in Norilsk Nickel Harjavalta was significantly increased (%): the recovery of Ni was increased to 98.7; that of Cu, to 99.5; Pt, to 99.6; and Pd to 99.6. Simultaneously, a copper cake (one of the main commercial products) of an improved composition, namely, (%) 57–62 Cu, <3 Ni, 8–11 Fe, was produced. The arsenic content in the copper cake was decreased from 1.5–2 to 0.15–0.3%. The largest projects are as follows: stage-by stage implementation of a matte-free technology with simultaneous modification of the matte line for processing converter matte; the development of a jarosite technology of iron deposition from a nickel solution, which decreased the irreversible losses of nonferrous and precious metals with a waste iron cake as much as possible (the losses of nickel and cobalt were decreased by 11 times; those of copper, by 23 times; platinum, by 16%; palladium, by 10%; rhodium, by 9%; gold, by 12%); and the building and introduction of carbonate processing, which allowed the production of nickel cathodes to be increased. As a result of the measures taken to redistribute raw materials, the mattes of slag-cleaning furnaces, which contained 35–40% Fe, were moved to KGMK. This integration solution led to a significant synergy effect in Nornickel. One of the key factors of the economic efficiency of the matte-free technology was a decrease in the specific consumption of the main reagents (oxygen, air, sulfuric acid) and the energy resources used for the manufacture of nickel products. As a result, the transaction costs were decreased by ~3.5 mln dollars per year.


Norilsk Nickel Harjavalta converter matte matte of slag-cleaning furnaces hydrometallurgical processing sulfate leaching matte-free technology nickel copper platinum palladium copper cake iron cake nickel cathodes 



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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. N. Naftal’
    • 1
    Email author
  • N. S. Kuznetsov
    • 2
  • S. S. Naboichenko
    • 3
  • K. A. Solntsev
    • 4
  • V. A. Bryukvin
    • 4
  1. 1.OOO NPP QualitetMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Norilsk Nickel Harjavalta OyHarjavaltaFinland
  3. 3.UrFUYekaterinburgRussia
  4. 4.Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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