The morphological and functional characteristics of the somatic musculature’s histological structure have been studied for three species of deep-sea fish from the Myctophidae family: spotted lanternfish Myctophum punctatum, lancet fish Notoscopelus kroyeri, and rakery beaconlamp Lampanyctus macdonaldi. The average diameter of fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle fibers in all studied species is large, and this indicator is highest in rakery beaconlamp. All species are characterized by a craniocaudal gradient of a decrease in the size of white muscle fibers. The shape of the fibers, from angular polygonal (spotted lanternfish) to the oval (rakery beaconlamp) and round (lancet fish), is a distinctive feature from other species of bony fish. In spotted lanternfish, a group of fibers of very small diameter, which are presumably small, slow-twitch oxidizing fibers, was also noted between the white and red muscles. The red muscles in the studied fish are poorly identified, since they are poorly developed. The studied species have a well-developed connective tissue carcass of white muscles, which indicates a certain friability of fast-twitch muscles. Both the red and white muscles in lanternfishes are a place of intense deposition of lipid reserves. Apparently, the high lipid content in muscle tissue helps to reduce the specific gravity of fish and increase their buoyancy.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Appelt, H., Einführung in die Mikroskopischen Untersuchungsmethoden, Leipzig: Geest & Portig, 1953.
Avtandilov, G.G., Morfometriya v patologii (Morphometry in Pathology), Moscow: Meditsina, 1973.
Battram, J.C. and Johnston, I.A., Muscle growth in the Antarctic teleost, Notothenia neglecta (Nybelin), Antarct. Sci., 1991, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 29–33. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102091000068
Bekker, V.E., Miktofovye ryby Mirovogo okeana (Lanternfishes of the World Ocean), Moscow: Nauka, 1983.
Bergstad, O.A., Age determination of deep-water fishes: experiences, status and challenges for the future, in Deep-Water Fisheries of the North Atlantic Oceanic Slope, Hopper, A.G., Ed., Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1995, pp. 267–283.
Bergstad, O.A., North Atlantic demersal deep-water fish distribution and biology: present knowledge and challenges for the future, J. Fish Biol., 2013, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 1489–1507. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12208
Blaxter, J.H.S., Wardle, C.S., and Roberts, B.L. Aspects of the circulatory physiology and muscle systems of deep-sea fish, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 1971, vol. 51, pp. 991–1006. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400018105
Boddeke, R., Slijper, E.J., and van der Stelt, A., Histological characteristics of the body musculature of fishes in connection with their mode of life, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet., Ser. C: Biol. Med. Sci., 1959, vol. 62, pp. 576–588.
Bykov, V.P., Ionas, G.P., Golovkova, G.N., et al., Tekhnokhimicheskie svoistva melkikh mezopelagicheskikh ryb (Technochemical Properties of Small Mesopelagic Fishes), Moscow: VNIRO, 1990.
Childress, J.J., Taylor, S.M., Cailler, G.M., and Price, M.H., Patterns of growth, energy utilization and reproduction in some meso- and bathypelagic fishes off southern California, Mar. Biol., 1980, vol. 61, pp. 27–40.
Childress, J.J., Price, M.H., Favuzzi, J., and Cowles, D., Chemical composition of midwater fishes as a function of depth of occurrence off the Hawaiian Islands: food availability as a selective factor? Mar. Biol., 1990, vol. 105, pp. 235–246.
Davison, W., The lateral musculature of the common bully, Gobiomorphus cotidianus, a freshwater fish from New Zealand, J. Fish Biol., 1983, vol. 23, pp. 143–151. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1983.tb02889.x
Davison, W. and MacDonald, J.A., A histochemical study of the swimming musculature of Atlantic fish, N. Z. J. Zool., 1985, vol. 12, pp. 473–483. https://doi.org/10.1080/03014223.1985.10428299
Denton, E.J. and Marchall, N.B., The buoyancy of bathypelagic fishes without a gas-filled swimbladder, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 1958, vol. 37, pp. 753–767.
Devine, J.A., Baker, K.D., and Haedrich, R.L., Deep-sea fishes qualify as endangered, Nature, 2006, vol. 439, pp. 336–337. https://doi.org/10.1038/439029a
Drazen, J.C. and Siebel, B.A., Depth-related trends in metabolism of benthic and benthopelagic deep-sea fishes, Limnol. Oceanogr., 2007, vol. 52, pp. 2306–2316.
Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References, Fricke, R., Eschmeyer, W.N., and van der Laan, R., Eds., 2019. http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. Accessed June 6, 2019.
FishBase, Version 04/2019, Froese, R. and Pauly, D., Eds., 2019. http://www.fishbase.org.
Gauldie, R.W., Coote, G., Mulligan, K.P., et al., Otoliths of deepwater fishes: structure, chemistry and chemically-coded life histories, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 1991, vol. 100, pp. l–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(91)90179-G
Gjøsaeter, J. and Kawaguchi, K., A review of the world resources of mesopelagic fish, FAO Fish. Tech. Pap., 1980, no. 193.
Gordon, M.S., Comparative studies on the metabolism of shallow-water and deep-sea marine fishes. I. Red muscle metabolism in shallow-water fishes, Mar. Biol., 1972, vol. 15, pp. 246–250.
Haedrich, R.L., Deep-water fishes: evolution and adaptation in the earth’s largest living spaces, J. Fish Biol., 1996, vol. 49, suppl. A, pp. 40–53.
Haedrich, R.L. and Merrett, N.R., Summary atlas of deep-living demersal fishes in the North Atlantic Basin, J. Nat. Hist., 1988, vol. 22, pp. 1325–1362.
Hashimoto, K.S., Watabe, M., Kono, M., and Shiro, K., Muscle protein composition of sardine and mackerel, Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish., 1979, vol. 45, pp. 1435–1441.
Irigoien, X., Klevjer, T.A., Røstad, A., et al., Large mesopelagic fish biomass and trophic efficiency in the open ocean, Nat. Commun., 2014, vol. 5, art. ID 3271. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4271
Koslow, J.A., Energetic and life-history patterns of deepsea benthic, benthopelagic and seamount-associated fish, J. Fish. Biol., 1996, vol. 49, suppl. A, pp. 54–74.
Koslow, J.A., Seamounts and the ecology of deep-sea fisheries, Am. Sci., 1997, vol. 85, pp. 168–176.
Koslow, J.A., Boehlert, G.W., Gordon, J.D.M., et al., Continental slope and deep-sea fisheries: implications for a fragile ecosystem, ICES J. Mar. Sci., 2000, vol. 57, pp. 548–557.
Mauchline, J. and Gordon, J.D.M., Trophic diversity in deep-sea fish, J. Fish Biol., 1985, vol. 26, pp. 527–535.
Mauchline, J. and Gordon, J.D.M., Foraging strategies of deep-sea fish, Mar. Ecol.: Progr. Ser., 1986, vol. 27, pp. 277–238.
Mead, G.W., Bertelsen, E., and Cohen, D.M., Reproduction among deep-sea fishes, Deep-Sea Res., 1964, vol. 11, pp. 569–596.
Merrett, N.R. and Haedrich, R.L., Deep-Sea Demersal Fish and Fisheries, London: Chapman and Hall, 1997.
Moku, M., Kawaquchi, K., Watanabe, H., and Ohno, A., Feeding habits of three dominant myctophid fishes, Diaphus theta, Stenobrachius leucopsarus and S. nannochir, in the subarctic and transitional water of the western North Pacific, Mar. Ecol.: Progr. Ser., 2000, vol. 207, pp. 129–140.
Norse, E.A., Brooke, S., Cheung, W.W.L., et al., Sustainability of deep-sea fisheries, Mar. Policy, 2012, vol. 36, pp. 307–320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2011.06.008
Panov, V.P., Morphological and biochemical characteristic of body muscles of some fishes of family Cyprinidae, Extended Abstract of Cand. Sci. (Agric.) Dissertation, Moscow: Timiryazev Agric. Acad., 1982a.
Panov, V.P., The pattern distribution of red muscles in the body of Cyprinidae fishes, in Intensifikatsiya prudovogo rybovodstva (Enhancement of Pond Fish Farming), Moscow: Timiryazevsk. S-kh. Akad., 1982b, pp. 121–125.
Panov, V.P. and Smirnov, A.N., The histological structure of the axial musculature of Chinese sleeper (Perccottus glehni Dyb.), Izv. Timiryazevsk. S-kh. Akad., 1996, no. 3, pp. 191–201.
Shank, T.M., Seamounts: deep-ocean laboratories of faunal connectivity, evolution, and endemism, Oceanography, 2010, vol. 23, pp. 108–122.
Shust, K.V. and Orlov, A.M., Prospective use of lanternfishes, Rybn. Khoz. (Moscow), 2003, no. 2, pp. 38–41.
Slebenaller, J.F. and Yancey, P.H., Protein composition of skeletal muscle from mesopelagic fishes having different water and protein content, Mar. Biol., 1984, vol. 78, pp. 129–137.
Somero, G.N. and Childress, J.J., A violation of the metabolism-size scaling paradigm: activities glycolitic enzymes in muscle increase in larger- size fishes, Physiol. Biochem. Zool., 1980, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 322–337.
Sullivan, K.M. and Somero, G.N., Enzyme activities of fish skeletal muscle and brain as influences by depth of occurrence and habits of feeding and locomotion, Mar. Biol., 1980, vol. 60, pp. 91–99.
Torres, J.J., Berman, B.W., and Childress, J.J., Oxygen consumption rates of midwater fishes, as a function of depth of occurrence, Deep-Sea Res.,Part A, 1979, vol. 26, pp. 185–197.
Vas’kov, A.A., Gorchinskii, K.V., Dolgov, A.V., and Sapozhnikov, A.V., Metodicheskie materially po opredeleniyu glubokovodnykh ryb Severnoi Atlantiki (Methodological Materials for Determination of Bathypelagic Fishes of Northern Atlantic), Murmansk: Polar. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2006.
Viggetti, A., Mascarello, F., Scapolo, P.A., and Rowlerson, A., Hyperplastic and hypoplastic growth of lateral muscle in Dicentrarchus labrax (L), Anat. Embryol., 1990, vol. 182, no. 1, pp. 1–10.
Weatherley, A.H. and Bresania, T., Histochemical characterization of myotomal muscle in the bluntnose minnow, Pimephales notatus Rafinesque, J. Fish Biol., 1982, vol. 21, pp. 205–214.
Weatherley, A.H. and Gill, H.S., Characteristics of mosaic muscle growth in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri,Experientia, 1981, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1102–1103. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02085036
Weatherley, A.H., Gill, S., and Lobo, A.F., Recruitment and maximal diameter of axial muscle fibers in teleosts and their relationship to somatic growth and ultimate size, J. Fish Biol., 1988, vol. 33, pp. 851–859.
Conflict of interests. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Statement on the welfare of animals. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Translated by D. Martynova
About this article
Cite this article
Panov, V.P., Falii, S.S., Orlov, A.M. et al. Histostructure of the Locomotor Apparatus in the Three Deep-Water Species of Lanternfishes (Myctophidae): Myctophum punctatum, Notoscopelus kroyeri, and Lampanyctus macdonaldi. J. Ichthyol. 59, 928–937 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0032945219060092
- lanternfishes Myctophidae
- Myctophum punctatum
- Notoscopelus kroyeri
- Lampanyctus macdonaldi
- muscle tissue
- fiber diameter
- slow-twitch muscle fibers
- fast-twitch muscle fibers