Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Body Size, Age Structure, Growth, and Maturation of Black Scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus (Scorpaenidae) from Southwestern Crimea (Black Sea)

  • 1 Accesses


The body size and age structure, as well as the features of growth and sexual maturation, of black scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus from the coastal waters of southwestern Crimea are analyzed. The average body length and weight are larger in the females than in the males: 16.4 cm and 93.0 g vs. 14.9 cm and 62.0 g. The maximum age of the females and males in the catches is 11 and 12 years, respectively. The females (50%) reach sexual maturity by the age of 3−4 years at 13.9 cm TL, while the males (50%) reach sexual maturity by the age of 2−3 years at 13.0 cm TL. After sexual maturation, the growth rate of the fish decreases, but the growth rate of the females is higher than that of the males. The black scorpionfish from Crimea differs from the representatives of this species from the Mediterranean Sea in a slower growth rate.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.


  1. 1

    Aleev, Yu.G., The pattern of fish growth, Vopr. Ikhtiol., 1956, no. 6, pp. 76–95.

  2. 2

    Altukhov, Yu.P., Genetic consequences of selective fishery and fish farming, Vopr. Rybolov., 2001, vol. 2, no. 4 (8), pp. 562–603.

  3. 3

    Bertalanffy von, L., A quantitative theory of organic growth (inquiries on growth laws II), Hum. Biol., 1938, vol. 10, pp. 181–213.

  4. 4

    Bilgin, S. and Çelik, E.S., Age, growth and reproduction of the black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus (Pisces, Scorpaenidae), on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, J. Appl. Ichthyol., 2009, vol. 25, pp. 55–60.

  5. 5

    Bradai, N. and Bouain, A., Age et croissance de Scorpaena porcus et Scorpaena scrofa du golfe de Gabes, Bull. Inst. Nat. Sci. Tech. Océanogr.Pêche Salammbô, 1988, vol. 15, pp. 13–38.

  6. 6

    Ferri, J., Petric, M., and Matic-Skoko, S., Biometry analysis of the black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the eastern Adriatic Sea, Acta Adriat., 2010, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 45–53.

  7. 7

    Ford, E., An account of the herring investigations conducted at Plymouth during the years from 1924–1933, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 1933, vol. 19, pp. 305–381.

  8. 8

    Holden, M.J. and Raitt, D.F.S., Manual of Fisheries Science, Part 2: Method of Resource Investigations and Their Application, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper vol. 115, Rome: Food Agric. Org., 1974, pp. 1–214.

  9. 9

    Hureau, J.C. and Litvinenko, N.I., Scorpaenidae, in Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, Paris: UNESCO, 1986, vol. 3, pp. 1211–1229.

  10. 10

    Jardas, I. and Pallaoro, A., Age and growth of black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus L., 1758 in the Adriatic Sea, Rapp. Comm. Int.Mer Médit., 1992, vol. 33, p. 296.

  11. 11

    Kuz’minova, N.S., The toxic effect of household waste waters on marine organisms, Extended Abstract of Cand. Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, Moscow: Moscow State Univ., 2006.

  12. 12

    Manilo, L.G. and Peskov, V.N., Comparative morphometric analysis of the smallscaled scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus (Scorpaenidae, Scorpaeniformes), from the southern coast of the Crimea and eastern part of the Adriatic Sea, Vestn. Zool., 2016, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 533–538.

  13. 13

    Mesa, M., Scarcella, G., Grati, F., et al., Age and growth of the black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus (Pisces: Scorpaenidae) from artificial structures and natural reefs in the Adriatic Sea, Sci. Mar., 2010, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 677–685.

  14. 14

    Mina, M.V. and Klevezal’, G.A., Rost zhivotnykh (The Growth of Animals), Moscow: Nauka, 1976.

  15. 15

    Nikol’skii, G.V., Teoriya dinamiki stada ryb (The Theory of Fish Herd Dynamics), Moscow: Pishchevaya Prom-st’, 1974.

  16. 16

    Pashkov, A.N., Shevchenko, N.F., Oven, L.S., et al., Distribution, abundance, and general population characteristics of the black scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus under anthropogenic impact in the Black Sea, Vopr. Ikhtiol., 1999, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 661–668.

  17. 17

    Pauly, D., Moreau, J., and Prein, M., A comparison of overall growth performance of tilapia in open waters and aquaculture, ICLARM Conf. Proc., 1988, vol. 15, pp. 469–479.

  18. 18

    Pravdin, I.F., Rukovodstvo po izucheniyu ryb (Manual on Fish Analysis), Moscow: Pishchevaya Prom-st’, 1966.

  19. 19

    Ricker, W.E., Computation and Interpretation of Biological Statistics of Fish Populations, Ottawa: Dep. Environ. Fish. Mar. Serv., 1975.

  20. 20

    Rudneva, I.I. and Zherko, N.V., Effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in gonads of the Black Sea scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus L., Russ. J. Ecol., 2000, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 63–65.

  21. 21

    Rudneva, I.I., Skuratovskaya, E.N., Dorokhova, I.I., Grab, Yu.A., Zalevskaya, I.N., and Omel’chenko, S.O., Bioindication of the environmental state of marine areas with the use of fish biomarkers, Water Resour., 2011, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 107–112.

  22. 22

    Schmalhausen, I.I., Integration of biological systems and their self-regulation, Byull. Mosk. O-va. Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Biol., 1961, no. 2, pp. 32–38.

  23. 23

    Shvarts, S.S., Ekologicheskie zakonomernosti evolyutsii (Ecological Pattern of Evolution), Moscow: Nauka, 1980.

  24. 24

    Silvestri, R., Voliani, A., and Zucchi, A., Nota sulla biologia di Scorpaena porcus Linneo, 1758 nel Mar Ligure meridionale, Biol. Mar. Medit., 2002, vol. 9, pp. 813–817.

  25. 25

    Skuratovskaya, E.N., Antioxidant enzymatic blood system of the Black Sea fishes in conditions of constant pollution, Extended Abstract of Cand. Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, Sevastopol: Inst. Biol. Southern Seas, 2009.

  26. 26

    Svetovidov, A.N., Ryby Chernogo morya (Fishes of the Black Sea), Moscow: Nauka, 1964.

  27. 27

    Ünsal, N. and Oral, M., A study on the growth and reproduction of black scorpionfish (Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus, 1758) in the Sea of Marmara, Turk. J. Zool., 1996, vol. 20, pp. 303–308.

  28. 28

    Vinogradov, A.K., Bogatova, Yu.I., Sinegub, I.A., et al., Ekologicheskie zakonomernosti raspredeleniya morskoi pribrezhnoi ikhtiofuany (Chernomorsko-Azovskii bassein) (Ecological Pattern of Distribution of Marine Coastal Ichthyofauna in Black Sea–Azov Sea Basin), Odessa: Astroprint, 2017.

  29. 29

    Walford, L.A., A new graphic method of describing the growth of animals, Biol. Bull., 1946, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 141–147.

  30. 30

    World sea temperature, version 01/2019, 2019.

Download references


This study was conducted according to the State Targets of the Institute of Marine Biological Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, “Features of Development and Anthropogenic Transformation of Biodiversity and Bioresources of the Azov–Black Sea Basin and Other Regions of the World Ocean,” project no. AAAA-A18-118020890074-2 and “Functional, Metabolic, and Toxicological Aspects of Hydrobionts and Populations in the Biotopes with Different Physicochemical Regimes,” project no. AAAA-A18-118021490093-4.

Author information

Correspondence to D. N. Kutsyn.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statement on the welfare of animals. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Additional information

Translated by D. Pavlov

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kutsyn, D.N., Skuratovskaya, E.N. & Chesnokova, I.I. Body Size, Age Structure, Growth, and Maturation of Black Scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus (Scorpaenidae) from Southwestern Crimea (Black Sea). J. Ichthyol. 59, 864–869 (2019).

Download citation


  • black scorpionfish Scorpaenaporcus
  • age
  • growth
  • sexual maturation
  • Black Sea