Special Traits in Early Ontogenesis of the Endemic Lacustrine Form of the Salvelinus malma Сomplex (Salmonidae), Small-Mouth Form, from Lake Kronotskoe (Eastern Kamchatka)
Growth, sequences of anlage, and special traits of transient states are investigated in skeletal elements (skull bones and serial structures—teeth, gill rakers, fin rays and pterygiophores, vertebral centra, predorsalia, scales) in prolarvae, larvae, and fry of endemic lacustrine form Dolly varden Salvelinus malma сomplex from Lake Kronotskoe in small-mouth char grown in a laboratory at constant temperature. A high individual variation of growth rate, osteogenesis, and head profile of small-month char larvae is observed demonstrating a recent, in relation to other endemic Kronotskoe Lake forms, formation of this deep-water lacustrine morphotype. Comparative analysis in early development of sympatric small-mouth and white char indicated the origin of the more warm-water, small-mouth char from the cold-water white char.
Keywords:small-mouth char Salvelinus malma сomplex development osteogenesis heterochronies prolarva larva lake spawning ground Lake Kronotskoe Eastern Kamchatka
I am grateful to G.N. Markevich, E.V. Esin (Kronotsk State Biosphere Reserve), and L.A. Anisimova (VNIRO) for collection and delivery to Moscow University of living small-mouth char and for a loan of data on temperature in the spawning ground and on spawning; to Т.I.. Shpilenok and D.M. Panicheva (Kronotsk State Biosphere Reserve) for logistic support in organization of work in Kronotsk State Biosphere Reserve; A.N. Stroganov (Moscow University) for availability of refrigeration equipment; and S.S. Alekseev (Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences) for discussion of the MS.
The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 18-04-00092).
COMPLIANCE WITH ETHICAL STANDARDS
Conflict of interests. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Statement on the welfare of animals. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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