Paleontological Journal

, Volume 52, Issue 12, pp 1436–1439 | Cite as

Bristle Scale As a Predecessor of Protofeather and Feather

  • S. V. SavelievEmail author
  • V. R. AlifanovEmail author


The bristle scale is a skin appendage recognized in the ornithiscian dinosaurs Daurosaurus olovus and Kulindapteryx ukureica from the Kulinda locality (Transbaikalia, Russia). Morphologically, the bristle scale is a horn plate immersed in the dermis, with strands (bristles) diverging from its external edge. It is assumed that the filamentous protofeather of dinosaurs is the monobristle variant of the bristle scale and avian feather results from its tubular spatial modification. The bristle scale is considered to be intermediate between the reptilian scale and avian feather.


scales protofeather feather dinosaurs birds evolution 



This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 16-05-00408.


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Scientific Research Institute of Human Morphology, Russian Academy of Medical SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Borissiak Paleontological Institute, Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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