Using Xps Data for Determining Spatial Distribution of Metals in Bimetallic Particles Supported on a Flat Surface
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Expressions are obtained for the intensities of photoemission lines of silver and gold in bimetallic particles formed during sequential deposition of metals on the flat surface of the support. Two cases are considered: bimetallic particles with a non-uniform distribution of metals (silver core covered with a gold shell) and alloy particles of uniform composition. The particle shapes are assumed to be hemispherical. Expressions were obtained for the photoemission lines of gold Au4f, Au3d3/2 and silver Ag3d as well as for the Auger line of silver AgMVV recorded using radiation AlKα (hν = 1486.6 eV) and AgLα (hν = 2983.4 eV). Gold shells on the surface of silver particles are shown to diminish the intensity ratio of AgMVV line to Ag3d line, and this effect becomes stronger with the increasing ratio γ of gold atoms to silver atoms. In the case of alloy particles Ag–Au, the intensity ratio of these lines also decreases with increasing γ, though to a much lesser extent. The intensity ratios of gold Au4f and Au3d3/2 lines to the silver Ag3d line are also considered. The obtained equations can be used in XPS studies to consider formation of bimetallic particles in model planar systems and the changes occurring with the particles as a result of heat treatment in a vacuum or in a reaction medium.
Keywordssilver gold bimetallic particles core–shell structure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
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