Inorganic Materials

, Volume 55, Issue 11, pp 1104–1110 | Cite as

Phase Composition and Structure of Titanium Carbide/Nickel Binder Synthesis Products

  • B. S. SeplyarskiiEmail author
  • R. A. Kochetkov
  • T. G. Lisina
  • N. I. Abzalov
  • M. I. Alymov


We have studied the phase composition and structure of titanium carbide with a nickel binder prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis in a cocurrent inert or reactive gas stream using granulated mixtures containing different grades of titanium. The results demonstrate that, unlike in the case of powder mixtures with a loose bulk density, the products of combustion of a granulated Ti + C + 25% Ni mixture in flowing nitrogen or without it retain their structure and granule size and can readily be ground into powder. In the case of the powder mixture both in a flowing gas and without it and in the case of the granulated mixture in flowing argon, the combustion products have the form of unbreakable sinter cakes, independent of the grade of titanium. Microstructural analysis of the combustion products points to spontaneous dispersion of the titanium particles surrounded by the nickel binder, independent of the starting mixture (granules or powder with a loose bulk density). Moreover, the phase composition of the synthesis products depends on the size and morphology of the titanium particles. In the case of PTM titanium, the final synthesis product consists of titanium carbide and nickel phases. After the combustion of mixtures based on PTM-1 titanium powder or a 50% PTM + 50% PTM-1 mixture, the final product consists of TiC, Ni, and TixNiy intermetallic phases. Synthesis in flowing nitrogen has been shown to change the phase composition of the combustion products of the mixtures based on PTM-1 titanium powder and a 50% PTM + 50% PTM-1 mixture, causing the intermetallic phases to disappear. To account for the combustion behavior of the mixtures, we have proposed a two-step mechanism of interaction in the Ti + C + 25% Ni system.


granules titanium carbide microstructure nickel binder synthesis sinter cake phase composition 


  1. 1.
    Kiparisov, S.S., Levinskii, Yu.V., and Petrov, A.P., Karbid titana: poluchenie, svoistva, primenenie (Titanium Carbide: Preparation, Properties, and Application), Moscow: Metallurgiya, 1987.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhang, X.-H., Han, J.-C., He, X.-D., and Kvanin, V.L., Combustion synthesis and thermal stress analysis of TiC–Ni functionally graded materials, J. Mater. Synth. Process., 2000, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 29–34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Khimicheskaya tekhnologiya keramiki. Uchebnoe posobie dlya vuzov (Chemical Technology of Ceramics: A Learning Guide for Higher Education Institutions), Guzman, I.Ya.,Ed., Moscow: Stroimaterialy, 2003.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Merzhanov, A.G. and Mukas’yan, A.S., Tverdoplamennoe gorenie (Solid Flame Combustion), Moscow: Torus, 2007.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Seplyarskii, B.S., Kochetkov, R.A., and Vadchenko, S.G., Burning of the Ti + xC (1 > x > 0.5) powder and granulated mixtures, Combustion, Explosion Shock Waves, 2016, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 665–672. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dunmead, S.D., Readey, D.W., Semler, C.E., and Hol, J.B., Kinetics of combustion synthesis in the Ti–C and Ti–C–Ni systems, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 1989, vol. 72, no. 12, pp. 2318–2324. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rogachev, A.S., Shkiro, V.M., Chausskaya, I.D., and Shvetsov, M.V., Gasless combustion in the system titanium–carbon–nickel, Combustion, Explosion Shock Waves, 1988, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 720–726. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kochetov, N.A., Rogachev, A.S., and Pogozhev, Yu.S., The effect of mechanical activation of a reaction mixture on the velocity of the wave propagation of SHS reactions and microstructure of the TiC–Ni hard alloy, Russ. J. Non-Ferrous Met., 2010, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 177–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Seplyarskii, B.S., The nature of the anomalous dependence of the velocity of combustion of “gasless” systems on the sample diameter, Dokl. Phys. Chem., 2004, vol. 396, nos. 4–6, pp. 130–133. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Seplyarskii, B.S., Tarasov, A.G., and Kochetkov, R.A., Experimental study of the combustion of a “gasless” granulated Ti + 0.5C composition in cocurrent streams of argon and nitrogen, Fiz. Goreniya Vzryva, 2013, no. 5, pp. 55–63.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Itin, V.I., Monasevich, T.V., and Bratchikov, A.D., Effect of mechanical activation on general relationships of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis in the titanium–nickel system, Fiz. Goreniya Vzryva, 1997, no. 5, pp. 48–51.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Seplyarskii, B.S. and Kochetkov, R.A., Combustion behavior of Ti + xC (x > 0.5) powders and granules in a cocurrent gas stream, Khim. Fiz., 2017, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 21–31.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Seplyarskii, B.S., Tarasov, A.G., Kochetkov, R.A., and Kovalev, I.D., Combustion behavior of Ti + TiC mixtures in a cocurrent nitrogen stream, Fiz. Goreniya Vzryva, 2014, no. 3, pp. 61–67.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. S. Seplyarskii
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. A. Kochetkov
    • 1
  • T. G. Lisina
    • 1
  • N. I. Abzalov
    • 1
  • M. I. Alymov
    • 1
  1. 1.Merzhanov Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science, Russian Academy of SciencesChernogolovkaRussia

Personalised recommendations