Advertisement

Geomagnetism and Aeronomy

, Volume 58, Issue 8, pp 1149–1158 | Cite as

On a Magnetic Anomaly in the Umbra of the Following Spot of an NOAA 12192 Active Region

  • A. N. Babin
  • A. N. Koval’
  • Yu. T. TsapEmail author
  • A. V. Borisenko
Article

Abstract

This paper examines the evolution and morphology of a magnetic anomaly: the appearance and disappearance of a longitudinal magnetic flux with opposite polarity at an area of about 10 arc seconds in the umbra of the following sunspot of an NOAA 12192 active region, which was observed from 21 to 26 October 2014 in the SDO/HMI and SOLIS/VSM magnetograms. Information collected by spacecraft and under on-ground observations including data from the Sun Service of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences are analyzed. Based on the methods of observation and determination of longitudinal magnetic fields in SDO/HMI in line FeI 6173.34 Å it was revealed, that combinations of contours appearing due to magnetic force lines inclinations relative to the line-of-sight and line-of-sight velocities can cause a significant undervalue of the magnetic field intensity in magnetograms, but polarity does not reverse. The fine spatial structure, evolution features, close correlation with ultraviolet loops system in SDO/AIA images, “moustaches”, and no temporal and spatial correlation with flares point to a connection between the detected anomaly and the new magnetic flux emergence of opposite polarity in a spot’s umbra at an earlier decay stage. We analyze magnetic force lines reconnection and show that annigilation of the magnetic fields of opposite polarities can take place for many hours at small (~30 km) scales and this fact is verified by observation results. There are additional facts in favor of the cluster model of a solar spot by Severny-Parker.

Notes

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors thank the scientific groups of SDO and SOLIS/VSM projects for the given data, Yu.A. Fursyak for his help in data processing, М.A. Lifshits, and the reviewer for fruitful discussions.

The work is supported partially by Russian Scientific Fund, project no. 16-12-10448, by the Russian Foundation for Basic Researches, project nos. 16-02-00221A and 18-02-00856-a,z, and by the Presidium of Russian Academy of Sciences, project no. 28.

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    Abdusamatov, Kh.I., The Structure of the magnetic field in a sunspot with a photospheric light-bridge at two levels in the solar atmosphere, Astron. Zh., 1970, vol. 47, pp. 82–90.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ambastha, A., Hagyard, M.J., and West, E.A., Evolutionary and flare-associated magnetic shear variations observed in a complex flare-productive active region, Sol. Phys., 1993, vol. 148, pp. 277–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Babin, A.N. and Koval, A.N., Ni I 6768 Å line profile variations during a solar flare and their effect on the SOHO/MDI magnetic field measurements, Bull. Crimean Astrophys. Obs., 2007, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 63–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beckers, J.M. and Schroter, E.H., The intensity, velocity and magnetic structure of a sunspot region. III. On the origin of the apparent π component in sunspot umbrae, Sol. Phys., 1968, vol. 7, pp. 22–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brants, J.J., High-resolution spectroscopy of active regions. 3. Relations between the intensity, velocity, and magnetic structure in an emerging flux region, Sol. Phys., 1985, vol. 98, pp. 197–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bruzek, A., On the arch-filament systems in spotgroups, Sol. Phys., 1967, vol. 2, pp. 451–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bumba, V., Magnetic fields in sunspot umbrae, Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech., 1962, vol. 13, pp. 48–59.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burtseva, O. and Martinez-Oliveros, J.C., Petrie,J.D., et al., Hard X-ray emission during flares and photospheric field changes, Astrophys. J., 2015, vol. 806, id 173.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen, J. and Wang, H., Zirin, H., et al., Observations of vector magnetic fields in flaring active regions, Sol. Phys., 1994, vol. 154, pp. 261–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Couvidat, S., Schou, J., Hoeksema, J.T., et al., Observables processing for the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on the Solar Dynamic Observatory, Sol. Phys., 2016, vol. 291, pp. 1887–1938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ding, M.D., Qiu, J., and Wang, H., Non-LTE calculations of the Ni I 676.8 nanometer line in a flaring atmosphere, Astrophys. J., 2002, vol. 576, pp. L83–L86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Giovanelli, R.G., The relations between eruptions and sunspots, Astrophys. J., 1939, vol. 89, pp. 555–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gopasyuk, S.I., The velocity field in an active region at spot appearance stage, Izv. Krym. Astrofiz. Obs., 1967, vol. 37, pp. 29–44.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hagyard, M.J., Stark, B.A., and Venkatakrishnan, P., A search for vector magnetic field variations associated with the M-class flares of 10 June 1991 in AR 6659, Sol. Phys., 1999, vol. 184, pp. 133–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Harker, B.J. and Pevtsov, A.A., Case study of a magnetic transient in NOAA 11429 observed by SDO/HMI during the M7.9 flare on 2012 March 13, Astrophys. J., 2013, vol. 778, id.175.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Henney, C.J., Keller, C.U., Harvey, J.W., et al., SOLIS vector spectromagnetograph: status and science, ASP Conf. Ser., 2009, vol. 405, pp. 47–50.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hoeksema, J.T., Liu, Y., Hayashi, K., et al., The helioseismic and magnetic imager (HMI) vector magnetic field pipeline: Overview and performance, Sol. Phys., 2014, vol. 289, pp. 3483–3530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kawaguchi, I. and Kitai, R., The velocity field associated with the birth of sunspots, Sol. Phys., 1976, vol. 46, pp. 125–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kjeldseth, M.O., On the magnetic-field configuration in sunspots, in Structure and Development of Solar Active Region (IAU Symposium 35), Kiepenheuer, K.O., Ed., Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1968, pp. 202–210.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kosovichev, A.G. and Zharkova, V.V., Magnetic energy release and transients in the solar flare of 2000 July 14, Astrophys. J., 2001, vol. 550, pp. L105–L108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Koval, A.N., An investigation of moustaches and ejections in connection with the development of spot-groups, Izv. Krym. Astrofiz. Obs., 1965, vol. 33, pp. 138–150.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kovitya, P. and Cram, L., Electrical conductivity in sunspots and quiet photosphere, Sol. Phys., 1983, vol. 84, pp. 45–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lemen, J.R., Title, A.M., Akin, D.J., et al., The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Sol. Phys., 2012, vol. 275, nos. 1–2, pp. 17–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Livshits, M.A., Grigoryeva, I.Yu., Myshyakov, I.I., and Rudenko, G.V., Evidence for a relationship between emerging magnetic fields, electric currents, and solar flares observed on May 10, 2012, Astron. Rep., 2016, vol. 60, pp. 939–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liu, Y. and Norton, A.A., MDI measurement errors: The magnetic perspective, SOI Technical Note 01-144, 2001. http://soi.stanford.edu/general/TechNotes/01.144/ TN01-144.pdf.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liu, Y., Norton, A.A., and Scherrer, P.H., A note on saturation seen in the MDI/SOHO magnetograms, Sol. Phys., 2007, vol. 241, pp. 185–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu, Y., Hoeksema, J.T., Scherrer, P.H., et al., Comparison of line-of-sight magnetograms taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager, Sol. Phys., 2012, vol. 279, pp. 295–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Martinez-Oliveros, J.C., Couvidat, S., Schou, J., et al., Imaging spectroscopy of a white-light solar flare, Sol. Phys., 2011, vol. 269, pp. 269–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Martinez-Oliveros, J.C., Lindsey, C., Hudson, H.S., et al., Transient artifacts in a flare observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Sol. Phys., 2014, vol. 289, pp. 809–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Maurya, R.A. and Ambastha, A., Magnetic and velocity field variations in the active regions NOAA 10486 and NOAA 10488, J. Astrophys. Astron., 2008, vol. 29, pp. 103–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Maurya, R.A. and Ambastha, A., Transient magnetic and doppler features related to the white-light flares in NOAA 10486, Sol. Phys., 2009, vol. 258, pp. 31–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Maurya, R.A., Vemareddy, P., and Ambastha, A., Velocity and magnetic transients driven by the X2.2 white-light flare of 2011 February 15 in NOAA 11158, Astrophys. J., 2012, vol. 747, pp. 134–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mogilevsky, E.I., Demkina, L.B., Iospa, V.A., and Obridko, V.N., On the structure of the magnetic field of sunspots, in Structure and Development of Solar Active Region (IAU Symposium 35), Kiepenheuer, K.O., Ed., Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1968, pp. 215–229.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nikol’skii, G.M. and Sazanov, A.A., Non-eclipse coronagraphs, Astron. Zh., 1966, vol. 43, pp. 868–872.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nikulin, N.S., Severny, A.B., and Stepanov, V.E., The solar magnetograph of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Izv. Krym. Astrofiz. Obs., 1958, vol. 19, pp. 3–19.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Orrall, F.Q., Solar Active Regions: A Monograph from Skylab Solar Workshop III, Boulder, Colorado Associated University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Parker, E.N., The Solar-flare phenomenon and the theory of reconnection and annihilation of magnetic fields, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 1963, vol. 8, pp. 177–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Parker, E.N., Sunspots and magnetic flux tubes, Astrophys. J., 1979, vol. 230, pp. 905–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Patterson, A., Flares in Hale 17760 – magnetic transients in the 1981 July 27 flare, Astrophys. J.,1984, vol. 280, pp. 884–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Patterson, A. and Zirin, H., Transient magnetic field changes in flares, Astrophys. J., 1981, vol. 243, pp. L99–L101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Qiu, J. and Gary, D.E., Flare-related magnetic anomaly with a sign reversal, Astrophys. J., 2003, vol. 599, pp. 615–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rachkovsky, D.N., Magneto-optical effects in spectral lines of sunspots, Izv. Krym. Astrofiz. Obs., 1962, vol. 27, pp. 148–161.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rust, D., Chromospheric explosions and satellite sunspots, structure and development of solar active region, in Structure and Development of Solar Active Region (IAU Symposium 35), Kiepenheuer, K.O., Ed., Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1968, pp. 77–84.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rutten, R.J. and Vissers, G.J.M., Rouppe van der Voort, L.H.M., et al., Ellerman bombs: fallacies, fads, usage, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 2013, vol. 440, id 012007.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Scherrer, P.H., Schou, J., Bush, R.I., et al., The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) investigation for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Sol. Phys., 2012, vol. 275, pp. 207–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schou, J., Scherrer, P.H., Bush, R.I., et al., Design and ground calibration of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Sol. Phys., 2012, vol. 275, pp. 229–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Severny, A.B., Fine structure of the magnetic field and depolarization of radiation in sunspots, Astron. Zh., 1959, vol. 36, pp. 208–214.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Severny, A.B., Observation of transversal and longitudinal magnetic fields connected with solar flares, Izv. Krym. Astrofiz. Obs., 1964, vol. 31, pp. 159–199.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Severny, A.B., Introductory report, in Stellar and Solar Magnetic Fields (IAU Symposium 22), Lust, R. Ed., Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1965, pp. 238–266.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Severny, A.B., The sunspot magnetic field, Sov. Astron., 1965, vol. 9, pp. 171–182.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Smirnova, V., Efremov, V.I., Parfinenko, L.D., et al., Artifacts of SDO/HMI data and long-period oscillations of sunspots, Astron. Astrophys., 2013, vol. 554, id A121.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stepanov, V.E., On the theory of the formation of absorption lines in a magnetic field and the profile of Fe λ 6173 Å in the solar sunspots, Izv. Krym. Astrofiz. Obs., 1958, vol. 19, pp. 20–45.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Svalgaard, L., Duvall, T.L., and Scherrer, P.H., Jr., The strength of the sun’s polar fields, Sol. Phys., 1978, vol. 58, pp. 225–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tsap, Yu.T., Stepanov, A.V., and Kopylova, Yu.G., Ambipolar diffusion and magnetic reconnection, Astron. Rep., 2012, vol. 56, pp. 138–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Vrabek, D., Streaming magnetic features near sunspots, in Chromospheric Fine Structure (IAU Symposium 56), Athey, R.G., Ed., Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1974, pp. 201–231.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wang, H., Rapid changes of photospheric magnetic fields around flaring magnetic neutral lines, Astrophys. J., 2006, vol. 649, pp. 490–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wang, H., Varsik, J., and Zirin, H., Joint vector magnetograph observations at BBSO, Huairou station and Mees observatory, Sol. Phys., 1992, vol. 142, pp. 11–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Weiss, N., Brownjohn, D.P., Matthews, P.C., Proctor, M.R.E., Photospheric convection in strong magnetic fields, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1996, vol. 283, pp. 1153–1164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Zang, M., Zang, H.Q., Ai, G.X., et al., Different spatial structures between network regions and active regions indicated by TRACE 171 Å observations, Sol. Phys., 1999, vol. 190, pp. 79–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Zirin, H., The magnetic structure of plages, in Chromospheric Fine Structure (IAU Symposium 56), Athey, R.G., Ed., Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1974, pp. 161–175.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zwaan, C., On the appearance of magnetic flux in the solar photosphere, Sol. Phys., 1978, vol. 60, pp. 213–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zwaan, C., The emergence of magnetic flux, Sol. Phys., 1985, vol. 100, pp. 397–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. N. Babin
    • 1
  • A. N. Koval’
    • 1
  • Yu. T. Tsap
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • A. V. Borisenko
    • 1
  1. 1.Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of SciencesNauchnyiRussia
  2. 2.The Central Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences at PulkovoSt. PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations