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Genesis of the Yessentuki Deposit of Carbonated Waters, North Caucasus

Abstract—The existing models of the formation of the Yessentuki mineral water deposits are analyzed on the basis of geothermal features of the formation, major and trace-element characteristics of salt composition, as well as isotope composition of aqueous (δ18О and δ2Н) and gas (δ13С in СО2 and СН4, 3Не/4Не) phases of carbonated mineral waters of the North Cis-Caucasus. It has been shown that water uptake from the Nagut deposit can provide the formation of salt composition of waters of the Yessentuki Deposit, but does not explain completely the observed differences in isotope composition of gas and water phases of these deposits. This can be explained only by additional influx of matter (mainly gases) non-related with the Nagut deposit. It was hypothesized that the Yessentuki “hydrochloric–alkaline” waters could be of “relict” origin.

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We are grateful to E.G. Potapov for help in the performance of field and laboratory studies, valuable comments, and discussion of obtained materials.


Expedition studies and analysis of isotope characteristics of waters were supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 17-05-00486). The studies of carbon isotope composition of methane and carbon dioxide were supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project no. 18-17-00245).

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Correspondence to V. Yu. Lavrushin or A. B. Lisenkov.

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Translated by M. Bogina

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Lavrushin, V.Y., Lisenkov, A.B. & Aidarkozhina, A.S. Genesis of the Yessentuki Deposit of Carbonated Waters, North Caucasus. Geochem. Int. 58, 77–90 (2020).

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  • mineral carbonated waters
  • chemical (salt) composition of groundwaters
  • gases
  • trace elements
  • oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition
  • water genesis