Geochemistry International

, Volume 57, Issue 6, pp 645–667 | Cite as

Petrology and Geochemistry of Acid Volcano-Plutonic Rocks from Riwasa and Nigana Areas of Neoproterozoic Malani Igneous Suite, Northwestern Peninsular India: An Understanding Approach to Magmatic Evolution

  • Naveen KumarEmail author
  • Naresh Kumar
  • A. Krishnakanta Singh


This paper discusses the geochemical and petrological characteristics of acid volcano-plutonic suite of rocks exposed in Riwasa and Nigana areas of Malani Igneous Suite (MIS), Northwestern India. Geochemically, these acidic rocks having peraluminous and alkalic to alkali-calcic nature and classified as volcanic phase (Riwasa rhyolites), plutonic phase (Nigana granites) and dyke phase (micro-granites). Petrographically, rhyolites show porphyritic, granophyric, glomeroporphyritic, aphyritic, spherulitic and perlitic textures whereas granites show hypidomorphic, granophyric and microgranophyric textures. They are high in silica, A/CNK, total alkalis, Fe/Mg, Ga/Al, Zr, Rb, U, Th, Cu, REEs (except Eu) and low in CaO, MgO, Sc, Cr, Ni, Sr and Eu abundances, which have affinity with A-type granitoids. Their chemistry also support that they are high heat production (HHP) granitoids and their crustal origin. The enrichment of trace elements indicates a genetic link between fractional crystallization of silicate minerals and post magmatic fluid alterations in magmatic chamber. Negative anomalies of Ti, P, Sr and Eu in the multi-element spider diagrams indicate that the emplacement of these granites and associated acid volcanics were controlled by fractionation of feldspar (alkali and plagioclase) and crustal contamination in the magmatic melt arise upward. Normative values of silicate oxides further suggests that these rocks are formed between 2–7 kb pressure ranges and may be emplaced from shallow to greater depth ranges (15–30 km and 450–900°C). Furthermore, geochemical features in acidic rocks such as strong linear positive correlation between LREE, Zr, Nb, Ga, Y and Rb emphasize that the behavior and enrichment of these elements are largely controlled by post-magmatic processes in plume related associations. Hence, the geochemical data presented here, are therefore consistent with an intraplate, co-magmatic and A2-subtype granite field emplaced in extensional tectonic regime of MIS.


geochemistry A-type granitoids Tusham Ring Complex Malani Igneous Suite India 



The authors wish to express their thanks to Chairman, Department of Geology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra and Director, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun for their support. The first author wishes to acknowledge the financial support of the Junior Research Fellowship, University Grand Commission (UGC) to carry out the research work. We are grateful to two journal reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions to improve the quality of manuscript.


  1. 1.
    J. L. Anderson, “Mineral equilibria and crystallization conditions in the late Precambrian Wolf River Rapakivi Massif, Wisconsin,” J. Am. Sci. 280, 289–332 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Barbarin, “A review of the relationships between granitoid types, their origins and their geodynamic environments,” Lithos, 46, 605–626 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. A. Batchelor and P. Bowden, “Petrogenetic interpretation of granitoid rock series using multicationic parameters,” Chem. Geol. 48, 43–55 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. Bonin, “A-type granites and related rocks: evolution of a concept, problems and prospects,” Lithos. 97, 1–29 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. Bonin, “From orogenic to anorogenic environments: evidence from associated magmatic episodes,” Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 68, 301–311 (1988).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. F. Buddington, “Granite emplacement with special reference to North America,” Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 70, 611–747 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. K. Chaudhary et al., “Present status of the geochronology of the Precambrian rocks of Rajasthan,” J. Tectonophys. 105, 131–140 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. B. Clarke, “Chemical variation in Al2O3–CaO–Na2O–K2O space: controls on the peraluminosity of the South Mountain Batholith,” J. Can. Earth. Sci. 41(7), 785–798 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. J. Collins et al., “Nature and origin of A-type granites with particular reference to southeastern Australia,” Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 80, 189–200 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. C. Condie, Mantle Plumes and their Record in Earth History (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. G. Cox et al., The Interpretation of Igneous Rocks (Allen & Unwin, London, 1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. R. Crawford and W. Compston, “The age of Vindhyan system of peninsular India,” Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London. 175, 351–370 (1970).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Dhar et al., “Sr, Pb and Nd isotope studies and their bearing on the petrogenesis of the Jalor and Siwana complexes, Rajasthan, India,” J. Geol. Soc. India. 48 (2), 151–160 (1996).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. H. Donaldson and C. M. B. Henderson, “A new interpretation of round embayments in quartz crystals,” Min. Magaz. 52, 27–33 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. N. Eby and N. Kochhar, “Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Malani Igneous Suite, North Peninsular India,” J. Geol. Soc. India. 36 (2), 109–130 (1990).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    G. N. Eby, “Chemical subdivision of the A-type granitoids: petrogenetic and tectonic implications,” J. Geol. 20, 641–644 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. M. El. Dabe, “A geochemical tectonomagmatic classification of the A–type granitoids based on their magma types and tectonic regimes,” J. Arab. Geosci. 8, 187–193 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kh. M. Fawzy, “Characterization of a post orogenic A–type granite, Gabal El Atawi, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geochemical and radioactive perspectives,” J. Geol. 7, 93–117 (2017).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    C. D. Frost and B. R. Frost, “Reduced rapakivi–type granites: the tholeiite connection,” Jour. Geol. 25, 647–650 (1997).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. D. Frost and B. R. Frost, “On Ferroan (A–type) Granitoids: their Compositional Variability and Modes of Origin,” J. Petrol. 52(1), 39–53 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    L. Gopeshwor and G. Vallinayagam, “Petrological and geochemical constraints in the origin and associated mineralization of A-type granite suite of the Dhiran Area, Northwestern Peninsular India,” J. Geosci. 2 (4), 66–80 (2012).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. V. Grebennikov, “A-type granites and related rocks: petrogenesis and classification,” Russ. Geol. Geophy. 55, 1074–1086 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. K. Gupta, “Embayed quartz crystals in Shyok volcanics, Ladakh,” Contemporary Geoscientific Researches in Himalaya 2, 65–68 (1983).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    G. N. Hanson and C. H. Langmuir, “Modeling of major elements: In mantle–melt system using trace elements approaches,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 42, 725–741 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    P. Henderson, “General geochemical properties and abundances of the rare earth elements,” Rare Earth Element Geochemistry (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984), pp. 1–31.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Isseini et al., “A–type granites from the Pan–African orogenic belt in south–western Chad constrained using geochemistry, Sr–Nd isotopes and U–Pb geochronology,” Lithos. 153, 39–52 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    N. Kochhar, “Malani Igneous Suite: Hot-spot magmatism and cratonization of the Northern part of the Indian Shield,” J. Geol. Soc. India. 25, 155–161 (1984a).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    N. Kochhar, “Tusham ring complex, Bhiwani district, India,” Proc. Ind. Nat. Sci. Acad. 49 (4), 459–490 (1984b).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    N. Kochhar et al., “Rb/Sr age of the Tusham Ring Complex Bhiwani, India,” J. Geol. Soc. India. 26, 216–218 (1985).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    N. Kochhar, “The Malani Supercontinent,” Front. Earth. Sci. 120–135 (2015).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    D. Konopelko et al., “Hercynian post–collisional A–type granites of the Kokshaal Range, Southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan,” Lithos. 97, 140–160 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Y. A. Kostitsyn et al., “Trace elements and evolution of granite melt as exemplified by the Raumid Pluton, Southern Pamirs,” Geochem. Int. 45 (10), 971–982 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    N. Kumar and G. Vallinayagam, “Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Neoproterozoic A-type granites at Nakora in the Malani Igneous Suite, Western Rajasthan, India,” J. Chin. Geochem. 31, 221–233 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. G. Lee et al., “Geochemical significance of the Rb–Sr, La–Ce and Sm–Nd isotope systems in A-type rocks with REE tetrad patterns and negative Eu and Ce anomalies: the Cretaceous Muamsa and Weolaksan granites, South Korea,” Jour. Chem. Der. Erde. 73, 75–88 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. C. Loiselle and D. R. Wones, “Characteristics and origin of anorogenic granites,” Geol. Soc. America. Abstracts. 11, 468 (1979).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Lopez-Plaza et al., “Contrasting mantle sources and processes involved in a peri–Gondwanan terrane. A case study of pre–Variscan mafic intrusives from the autochthon of the Central Iberian Zone,” Geol. Soc. Am. Spl. Paper. 423, 297–313 (2007).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    A. Maheshwari et al., “Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Siwana peralkaline granites, west of Barmer, Rajasthan, India,” Int. Assoc. Gond. Res. Japan, 4 (1), 87–95 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    P. D. Maniar and P. M. Piccoli, “Tectonic discrimination of granitoids,” J. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 101 (5), 635–643 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    A-K. M. Moghazi et al., “Sources of rare–metal–bearing A–type granites from Jabel Sayed Complex, Northern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia,” Jour. Asian. Earth. Sci. 107, 244–258 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. M. B. Moufti et al., “Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Ediacaran post–collisional Jabal Al–Hassir ring complex, southern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia,” J. Chemie. Erde. 73 (4), 451–467 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    H. S. Pareek, “Petrography and geochemistry of Tusham hill felsic volcanics, Haryana,” Jour. Geol. Soc. India. 27, 254–262 (1986).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    J. A. Pearce et al., “Trace element description diagrams for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks,” Jour. Petrol. 25, 956–983 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. Pl`a Cid et al., “Paleoproterozoic late-orogenic and anorogenic alkaline granitic magmatism from northeast Brazil,” Precamb. Res. 104, 47–75 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    D. L. Roche et al., “A classification of volcanic and plutonic rocks using R1–R2 diagram and major–element analysis–its relationship with current nomenclature,” Chem. Geol. 29, 183–210 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    H. R. Rollinson, Using Geochemical Data: Evaluation, Presentation, Interpretation (Longman–Wileys, New York, 1993).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    R. Sharma and N. Kumar, “Petrology and Geochemistry of A-type granites from Khanak and Devsar areas of Bhiwani district, Southwestern Haryana,” J. Geol. Soc. India. 90, 138–146 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    A. K. Singh et al., “Anorogenic acid volcanic rocks in the Kundal area of the Malani Igneous Suite, Northwestern India: Geochemical and petrogenetic studies,” J. Asian. Earth. Sci. 27, 544–557 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    M. Stony, “Trachytic pyroclastic from Agua de volcano, Sao Miquel Azores: evolution of a magma body over 4000 years”, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 12, 423–432 (1981).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    S. S. Sun and W. F. McDonough, “Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: Implications for mantle composition and processes,” Magmatism in the Ocean Basin, Eds. by M. J. Norry and A. D. Saunders, Geol. Soc. Sp. Publ. 2, 313–345 (1989).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    W. Wang et al., “Low-δ18O rhyolites from the Malani Igneous Suite: a positive test for south China and NW India linkage in Rodinia,” J. Geophys. Res. 44 (10), 298–305 (2017).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    E. B. Watson, “Zircon saturation in felsic liquids: experimental results and applications to trace element geochemistry. Contrib. Miner. Petrol. 70, 407–419 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    J. B. Whalen et al., “A-type granites: Geochemical characteristics, discrimination and petrogenesis,” Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 96, 407–419 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naveen Kumar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Naresh Kumar
    • 1
  • A. Krishnakanta Singh
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geology, Kurukshetra UniversityKurukshetraIndia
  2. 2.Wadia Institute of Himalayan GeologyDehradunIndia

Personalised recommendations