Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 84, Issue 9, pp 979–991 | Cite as

The Role of Plasminogen Activator System in the Pathogenesis of Epilepsy

  • A. A. Shmakova
  • K. A. Rubina
  • K. V. Anokhin
  • V. A. Tkachuk
  • E. V. SeminaEmail author


Neurodegenerative disorders and ischemic conditions leading to the development of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, vascular dementia, etc. have attracted attention of many researchers studying the mechanisms of abnormalities in the central nervous system (CNS). The genetic predisposition for these diseases has been reported in the studies of the last few decades. Current achievements in biochemistry and molecular biology have revealed the relationships between risk factors contributing to the development of these pathologies and target proteins controlled by the genome. It has been demonstrated that polymorphisms/mutations in the genes regulating the growth of axons and blood vessels, glia formation and neuronal migration can lead to the brain malformation and its distorted function in embryogenesis and early ontogenesis. Guidance receptors regulating axon growth and establishment of neuronal circuits and cognitive functions take the central role among the molecules involved in the development of neurodegenerative conditions and pathologies, such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Recently, an interest in the role of plasminogen activators in various physiological and pathological conditions in the CNS has noticeably increased. Our previous publications have established the role of these proteins in the regulation of growth rate, growth trajectory, and branching of axons. In this review, we summarize the published data on the mechanisms underlying the involvement of plasminogen activator system in pathological conditions in the brain with special emphasis on epilepsy.


plasminogen activator system urokinase urokinase receptor tissue plasminogen activator brain epilepsy 



blood-brain barrier


brain-derived neurotrophic factor


central nervous system


extracellular matrix


epidermal growth factor receptor


extracellular signal-regulated kinase


γ-amino-butyric acid




hepatocyte growth factor


low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1


nerve growth factor


p75 neurotrophin receptor


plasminogen activator inhibitor


plasminogen activator system


platelet growth factor receptor β


tissue plasminogen activator gene


urokinase gene


urokinase receptor gene


tissue plasminogen activator


tropomyosin receptor kinase




urokinase receptor


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Funding. The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project 19-75-30007; literature search and analysis, review writing and preparation) and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 17-04-00386; figure drawing and design with Adobe Illustrator CC 2017).

Compliance with ethical standards. This review does not contain any studies involving animals or human participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. Shmakova
    • 1
  • K. A. Rubina
    • 1
  • K. V. Anokhin
    • 2
  • V. A. Tkachuk
    • 1
    • 3
  • E. V. Semina
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Medicine, Laboratory of Gene and Cell TechnologiesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Institute for Advanced Brain StudiesMoscowRussia
  3. 3.National Cardiology Research Center, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Laboratory of Molecular EndocrinologyMoscowRussia

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