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Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 84, Issue 3, pp 190–204 | Cite as

Development of Hematopoietic Stem Cells in the Early Mammalian Embryo

  • S. A. RybtsovEmail author
  • M. A. Lagarkova
Review
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were the first stem cells discovered in humans. A. A. Maximov proposed an idea of blood stem cells that was confirmed later by McCulloch and Till experimentally. HSCs were the first type of stem cells to be used in clinics and ever since are being continually used. Indeed, a single HSC transplanted intravenously is capable of giving rise to all types of blood cells. In recent decades, human and animal HSC origin, development, hierarchy, and gene signature have been extensively investigated. Due to the constant need for donor blood and HSCs suitable for therapeutic transplants, the experimental possibility of obtaining HSCs in vitro by directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has been considered in recent years. However, despite all efforts, it is not yet possible to reproduce in vitro the ontogenesis of HSCs and obtain cells capable of long-term maintenance of hematopoiesis. The study of hematopoiesis in embryonic development facilitates the establishment and improvement of protocols for deriving blood cells from PCSs and allows a better understanding of the pathogenesis of various types of proliferative blood diseases, anemia, and immunodeficiency. This review focuses on the development of hematopoiesis in mammalian ontogenesis.

Keywords

hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) hematopoietic progenitors hematopoietic hierarchy mouse development human hematopoiesis AGM embryo 

Abbreviations

AGM

aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

CS

Carnegie developmental stages in human embryos

dpf

days post-fertilization

E9

mouse embryonic day 9

EHT

endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition

ESCs

embryonic stem cells

GFP

green fluorescent protein

HE

hemogenic endothelium

HEM

human embryonic material

HSCs

hematopoietic stem cells

iPSCs

induced pluripotent stem cells

LPM

lateral plate mesoderm

NSG

T, B, and NK cell deficient mouse strain (NOD/LtSz-scid IL2R gamma null)

pre-HSCs-I

type I HSCs precursors (E10)

pre-HSCs-II

type II HSCs precursors (E11)

pro-HSCs

progenitor of HSC precursors (E9)

TGFβ

transforming growth factor beta

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MRC Centre for Regenerative MedicineUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghUK
  2. 2.Federal Research and Clinical Centre of Physical-Chemical MedicineFederal Medical-Biological AgencyMoscowRussia

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