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Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 83, Issue 7, pp 800–812 | Cite as

The Regulatory Role of NAD in Human and Animal Cells

  • V. A. Kulikova
  • D. V. Gromyko
  • A. A. Nikiforov
Review
  • 2 Downloads

Abstract

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphorylated form NADP are the major coenzymes in the redox reactions of various essential metabolic pathways. NAD+ also serves as a substrate for several families of regulatory proteins, such as protein deacetylases (sirtuins), ADP-ribosyltransferases, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, that control vital cell processes including gene expression, DNA repair, apoptosis, mitochondrial biogenesis, unfolded protein response, and many others. NAD+ is also a precursor for calcium-mobilizing secondary messengers. Proper regulation of these NAD-dependent metabolic and signaling pathways depends on how efficiently cells can maintain their NAD levels. Generally, mammalian cells regulate their NAD supply through biosynthesis from the precursors delivered with the diet: nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (vitamin B3), as well as nicotinamide riboside and nicotinic acid riboside. Administration of NAD precursors has been demonstrated to restore NAD levels in tissues (i.e., to produce beneficial therapeutic effects) in preclinical models of various diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

Keywords

NAD metabolism deacetylation ADP-ribosylation biosynthesis 

Abbreviations

ADPR

ADP-ribose

cADPR

cyclic ADP-ribose

AIF

apoptosis inducing factor

ARH

ADP-ribosylhydrolase

ART

ADP-ribosyltransferase

ARTC

clostridial toxin-like ADP-ribosyltransferase

ARTD

diphtheria toxin-like ADP-ribosyltransferase

ER

endoplasmic reticulum

KDAC

lysine deacetylase

NA

nicotinic acid

NAAD

nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide

NAADP

nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate

Nam

nicotinamide

NAMN

nicotinic acid mononucleotide

NAR

nicotinic acid riboside

NAPRT

nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase

NMN

nicotinamide mononucleotide

NMNAT

nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase

NR

nicotinamide riboside

PARP

poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase

Sir2

silent information regulator 2

SIRT1-7

sirtuins 1-7

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. A. Kulikova
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. V. Gromyko
    • 1
  • A. A. Nikiforov
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of CytologyRussian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia

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