Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

, Volume 54, Issue 11, pp 1569–1594 | Cite as

Baikal Electromagnetic Experiment

  • S. M. KorotaevEmail author
  • N. M. Budnev
  • V. O. Serdyuk
  • D. A. Orekhova
  • M. S. Kruglyakov
  • E. O. Kiktenko
  • R. R. Mirgazov
  • V. L. Zurbanov
  • Ju. V. Gorokhov
  • E. V. Ryabov


The vertical component of the electric field Ez in the hydrosphere is not contaminated by the telluric component and therefore can effectively be used to monitor various processes in the hydrosphere itself, lithosphere, and atmosphere. For this purpose, the Ez monitoring experiment on the surface–floor base has been conducted in Lake Baikal since 2003. The lack of the telluric component is confirmed experimentally and justified by simulation. The effect and precursors of the close earthquake, the variations in total flows of water currents, and variations in the closing current of the Global Electric Circuit in the conducting Earth are studied. The measurements of macroscopic quantum nonlocal correlations have also been set up since 2012. Based on them, the possibility of forecasting processes with a large random component, in particular a remote earthquake, is demonstrated. On the territory adjacent to the deep-water monitoring site, measurements of the gradients of magnetic field variations have been underway since 2017; it is expected that these will be expanded to the entire coast of Lake Baikal. To interpret measurements, geoelectric models of the Baikal rift, which represent the known competing hypotheses, have been constructed.


marine geoelectrics monitoring flows earthquakes geosphere interaction nonlocality forecast Baikal 



This work was fulfilled in the context of the fundamental research of the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, under government task no. 0144-2014-0111 with support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the Irkutsk Oblast Government, project no. 17-45-38805.

A part of the work was carried out using the equipment of the Tunkin Astrophysics Common Use Center of Irkutsk State University.

The authors thank G.V. Domogatskii, A.I. Panfilov, A.V. Zagorodnikov, A.V. Novysh, and V.B. Buzin for their assistance in performing the experiment.


  1. 1.
    Berdichevsky, M.N., Vanyan, L.L., and Koshurnikov, A.V., Magnetotelluric sounding in the Baikal rift zone, Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 1999, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 793–814.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Calsamiglia, J., Hartmann, L., Dur, W., and Briegel, H.-J., Spin gases: Quantum entanglement driven by classical kinematics, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2005, vol. 95, 180 502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cramer, J.G., Generalized absorber theory and Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox, Phys. Rev. D: Part. Fields, 1980, vol. 22, pp. 362–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    De Batist, M., Canals, M., Sherstyankin, P., Alekseev, S., et al., A new bathymetric map of Lake Baikal, 2002. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dür, W. and Briegel, H.-J., Stability of macroscopic entanglement under decoherence, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2004, vol. 92, 180 403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Epov, M.I., Pospeeva, E.V., and Vitte, L.V., Crust structure and composition in the southern Siberian craton (influence zone of Baikal rifting), from magnetotelluric data, Russ. Geol. Geofiz., 2012, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 293–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gao, S.P., Davis, M., Liu, H., Slack, P., Zorin, Y.A., Logatchev, N.A., Kogan, M., Burkholder, P., and Meyer, R.P., Asymmetric upwarp of the asthenosphere beneath the Baikal rift zone, Siberia, J. Geophys. Res., 1994, vol. 99, pp. 15 319–15 330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ghosh, S., Rosenbaum, T.F., Aepll, G.A., and Coppersmith, S.N., Entanglement quantum state of magnetic dipoles, Nature, 2003, vol. 425, p. 48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grachev, A.F., Main problems of neotectonics and geodynamics of Northern Eurasia, Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 1996, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 925–954.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hoyle, F. and Narlikar, J.V., Cosmology and action-at-a-distance electrodynamics, Rev. Mod. Phys., 1995, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 113–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Korotaev, S.M., On the possibility of a causal analysis of geophysical processes, Geomagn. Aeron., 1992, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 27–33.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Korotaev, S.M., The role of different definitions of entropy in the causal analysis of geophysical processes and their application to electromagnetic induction in sea currents, Geomagn. Aeron., 1995, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 116–125.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Korotaev, S.M., Experimental study of advanced correlation of some geophysical and astrophysical processes, Int. J. Comput. Anticip. Syst., 2006, vol. 17, pp. 61–76.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Korotaev, S.M., Causality and Reversibility in Irreversible Time, Sci. Res. Publ., 2011.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Korotaev, S.M. and Serdyuk, V.O., The forecast of fluctuating large-scale natural processes and macroscopic correlations effect, Int. J. Comput. Anticip. Syst., 2008, vol. 20, pp. 31–46.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Korotaev, S.M., Serdyuk, V.O., and Sorokin, M.O., Effect of macroscopic nonlocality on geomagnetic and solar–ionospheric processes, Geomagn. Aeron. (Engl. Transl.), 2000, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 323–330.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Korotaev, S.M., Serdyuk, V.O., and Gorokhov, Yu.V., Forecast of geomagnetic and solar activity on nonlocal correlations, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2007, vol. 415, no. 6, pp. 975–978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Korotaev, S.M., Gaidash, S.P., Shneer, V.S., Serdyuk, V.O., Budnev, N.M., Mirgazov, R.R., Buzin, V.B., Khalezov, A.A., and Panfilov, A.I., Interannual changeability in the variations of the vertical component of the electric field in Lake Baikal, Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 2011a, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 147–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Korotaev, S.M., Shneer, V.S., Gaidash, S.P., Budnev, N.M., Mirgazov, R.R., Khalezov, A.A., and Panfilov, A.I., The effect and precursors of the earthquake of August 28, 2008, in the vertical component of the electric field in Lake Baikal, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2011b, vol. 438, no. 2, pp. 842–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Korotaev, S.M., Kiktenko, E.O., Gaidash, S.P., Budnev, N.M., Mirgazov, R.R., Panfilov, A.I., Khalezov, A.A., Serdyuk, V.O., and Shneer, V.S., Relationship between variations in the electric field’s vertical component in Lake Baikal and solar activity, Geomagn. Aeron. (Engl. Transl.), 2013a, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 769–773.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Korotaev, S.M., Budnev, N.M., Serdyuk, V.O., Gorohov, J.V., Kiktenko, E.O., Zurbanov, V.L., Mirgazov, R.R., Buzin, V.B., and Novysh, A.V., Preliminary results of the Baikal experiment on observations of macroscopic nonlocal correlations in reverse time, in Physical Interpretations of Relativity Theory, Moscow: BMSTU, 2013b, pp. 141–151.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Korotaev, S.M., Budnev, N.M., Gorokhov, Yu.V., Serdyuk, V.O., Kiktenko, E.O., and Panfilov, A.I., The Baikal experiment on the observation of forward nonlocal correlations, Vestn. Mosk. Gos. Tekh. Univ., Ser. Estetsv. Nauki, 2014, no. 1, pp. 35–53.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Korotaev, S.M., Budnev, N.M., Serdyuk, V.O., Zurbanov, V.L., Mirgazov, R.R., Machinin, V.A., Kiktenko, E.O., Buzin, V.B., Novysh, A.V., and Portyanskaya, I.A., Results of vertical electric field monitoring in Lake Baikal, Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 2015a, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 602–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Korotaev, S.M., Budnev, N.M., Serdyuk, V.O., Zurbanov, V.L., Mirgazov, R.R., Machinin, V.A., Kiktenko, E.O., Buzin, V.B., and Panfilov, A.I., Recent results of monitoring of the vertical component of the electrical field in Lake Baikal on the surface-bed baseline, Geomagn. Aeron. (Engl. Transl.), 2015b, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 398–409.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Korotaev, S.M., Serdyuk, V.O., Kiktenko, E.O., Budnev, N.M., and Gorohov, J.V., Results of the Baikal experiment of observations of macroscopic nonlocal correlations in reverse time, in Unified Field Mechanics, London: World Scientific, 2015c, pp. 366–373.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Korotaev, S.M., Budnev, N.M., Serdyuk, V.O., Kiktenko, E.O., and Gorokhov, Yu.V., Deepwater electromagnetic monitoring in Lake Baikal: Classical and nonclassical aspects, Vopr. Estestvozn., 2016, no. 2, pp. 41–53.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Korotaev, S.M., Budnev, N.M., and Serdyuk, V.O., Advanced response of the Baikal macroscopic nonlocal correlation detector to solar activity, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 2017, vol. 918, 012003.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Korotaev, S.M., Serdyuk, V.O., and Budnev, N.M., Correlation between long-term variations in the vertical component of the electric field in Baikal and solar activity, Geomagn. Aeron. (Engl. Transl.), 2018a, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 142–148.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Korotaev, S.M., Serdyuk, V.O., and Budnev, N.M., Advanced response of the Baikal macroscopic nonlocal correlation detector to the heliogeophysical processes, in Unified Field Mechanics, vol. 2: Formulations and Empirical Tests, London: World Scientific, 2018b, pp. 375–380.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kruglyakov, M. and Kuvshinov, A., Using high-order polyinomal basis in 3-d em forward modeling based on volume integral equation method, Geoph. J. Intern, 2018, vol. 213, no. 2, pp. 1387–1401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Krylov, S.V., Mandel’baum, M.M., Mishen’kin, B.P., Mishen’kina, Z.R., Petrik, G.V., and Seleznev, B.C., Nedra Baikala (po seismicheskim dannym) (Mineral Resources Baikal (According to Seismic Data)), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1981.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kumar, C.P.A., Panneerselvavam, C., Nair, K.U., Jeeva, K., Selvaraj, C., Jeyakumar, H.J., and Gurubaran, S., Measurement of atmospheric air–Earth current density from a tropical station using improvised Wilson’s plate antenna, Earth Planets Space, 2009, vol. 61, pp. 919–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kuznetsova, T.V., Tsirulnik, L.V., and Petrov, V.G., Change in the interplanetary magnetic field in different periods according to measurement data during the cosmic era, Izv. Akad. Nauk., Ser. Fiz., 2000, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 1880–1886.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kuznetsova, T.V. and Tsirulnik, L.V., Oscillations in the Sun–Earth system, in Proc. the 4th Int. Conf. “Problems of Geocosmos”, St. Petersburg, 3–8 June 2002, Vienna: Austrian Acad. Sci., 2002, pp. 8–11.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lean, J.L. and Brueckner, G.E., Intermediate-term solar periodicities: 100–500 days, Astrophys. J., 1989, vol. 337, pp. 568–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Logachev, N.A., Main structural features and geodynamics of the Baikal rift zone, Fiz. Mezomekh., 1999., vol. 2, nos. 1–2, pp. 163–170.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lunina, O.V., Gladkov, A.S., and Sherstyankin, P.P., A new electronic map of active faults for southeastern Siberia, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2010, vol. 433, no. 2, pp. 1016–1021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mats, V.D., Ufimtsev, G.F., and Mandel’baum, M.M., Kainozoi Baikal’skoi riftovoi vpadiny: Stroenie i geologicheskaya istoriya (The Cenozoic of the Baikal Rif Zone: Structure and Geological History), Novosibirsk: SO RAN, 2001.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Moldavanov, A.V., Stratospheric discharges during solar gamma flares, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 2003, vol. 36, pp. L1–L4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Morgunov, V.A., Spatial inhomogeneities of the atmospheric electric field as a factor of lithospheric–ionospheric links, in Elektricheskoe vzaimodeistvie geosfernykh obolochek (Electrical Interaction of Geospheric Shells), Moscow: OIFZ RAN, 2000, pp. 106–113.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Moroz, Yu.F. and Moroz, T.A., The deep geoelectric section of the Baikal rift, Vestn. Kamchatskoi Reg. Assots. Uchebno-Nauchnyi Tsentr, Nauki Zemle, 2012, vol. 2, no. 20, pp. 114–126.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Morozov, V.N., Shvarts, Ya.M., and Shchukin, G.G., Global electric circuit: Physical and mathematical modeling and regular measurements in the lower atmosphere, in Elektricheskoe vzaimodeistvie geosfernykh obolochek (Electrical Interaction of Geospheric Shells), Moscow: OIFZ RAN, 2000, pp. 55–67.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Orekhova, D.A., Kruglyakov, M.S., Korotaev, S.M., and Budnev, N.M., Choice of an adequate geoelectric model for the Baikal rift from observations in the region of a deepwater electromagnetic monitoring experiment, in Aktual’nye problemy nauki Pribaikal’ya (Topical Problems in the Science of the Baikal Region), Irkutsk: IG SO RAN, 2017, vol. 2, pp. 3–15.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pankratov, O.V., Kuvshinov, A.V., Avdeev, A.B., Shneyer, V.S., and Trofimov, I.L., Ez-response, as a monitor of Baikal rift fault electrical resistivity: 3-D-modeling studies, Ann. Geophys., 2004, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 151–156.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Panneerselvavam, C., Kumar, C.P.A., Nair, K.U., Selvaraj, C., Gurubaran, S., and Pathan, B.M., Instrumentation for the surface measurements of atmospheric electrical parameters at Maitri, Antarctica: First results, Earth Planets Space, 2010, vol. 62, pp. 545–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pospeev, A.V., The velocity structure of the upper mantle and regional deep thermodynamics of the Baikal rift zone, Geodyn. Tectonophys., 2012, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 377–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rieger, E., Share, G.H., and Forrest, D.G., A 154 day periodicity in the occurrence of hard flares, Nature, 1984, vol. 312, pp. 625–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rozen, O.M., Manakov, A.V., and Zinchuk, N.N., Sibirskii kraton: Formirovanie, almazonosnost’ (The Siberian Craton: Formation and Diamond Potential), Moscow: Nauchnyi mir, 2006.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shneer, V.S., Gaidash, S.P., Trofimov, I.L., Korotaev, S.M., Kuznetsova, T.V., Tsirul’nik, L.B., Panfilov, A.I., Budnev, N.M., and Mirgazov, R.R., Long-term observations of the electric field vertical component in Lake Baikal (preliminary results), Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 2007, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 331–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Trofimov, I.L., Shneer, V.S., and Gaidash, S.P., The possibility of monitoring of pore pressure of fluids in the Earth crust according to observations of electric field variations, Vestn. OGGGGN RAN, 2001, no. 4, pp. 3–7.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Vinogradov, P.A., Measurement of the vertical component of the electrotelluric field of Lake Baikal, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz., 1959, no. 1, pp. 83–86.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Vinogradov, P.A., New experimental data on the vertical component of short-period oscillations in the field of terrestrial currents, Geol. Geofiz., 1960, no. 8, pp. 100–105.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zorin, Yu.A., Noveishaya struktura i izostaziya Baikal’skoi riftovoi zony i sopredel’nykh territorii (Recent Structure and Isostasy of the Baikal Rift Zone and Adjacent Territories), Moscow: Nauka, 1971.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. M. Korotaev
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • N. M. Budnev
    • 3
  • V. O. Serdyuk
    • 1
  • D. A. Orekhova
    • 1
  • M. S. Kruglyakov
    • 1
  • E. O. Kiktenko
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. R. Mirgazov
    • 3
  • V. L. Zurbanov
    • 3
  • Ju. V. Gorokhov
    • 4
  • E. V. Ryabov
    • 3
  1. 1.Geoelectromagnetic Research Centre, Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of SciencesTroitskRussia
  2. 2.Bauman Moscow State Technical UniversityMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Applied Physics Institute, Irkutsk State UniversityIrkutskRussia
  4. 4.Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of SciencesTroitskRussia

Personalised recommendations