Spatiotemporal Variability of High-Altitude Jet Streams from Satellite Measurements
Results of an investigation into the spatiotemporal variability of the main characteristics of jet streams (JSs) in the upper troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere in the field of view of European geostationary meteorological satellites for the period 2007–2015 are presented. The JS characteristics are obtained using an automated method for calculating the horizontal wind velocity profile based on atmospheric sounding data from the SEVIRI radiometer in the 6.2-μm water vapor channel. Significant linear trends of most JS characteristics are revealed. It is shown that the relative increase in the number of JSs and their effective lifetime were 25 and 22%, respectively, and the relative decrease in the maximum wind speed on the axis and the horizontal velocity gradient on the cyclonic and anticyclonic sides were 7, 13, and 20%. The annual variation is most pronounced for the number of JSs, their maximum velocity, and average area and width. One characteristic feature is the synchronous annual variability of the maximum velocity and width of JSs determined by the isotach level V = 30 m/s. A pronounced horizontal asymmetry of the wind-velocity profile in JSs is noted. A stable annual oscillation and its harmonics are observed in amplitude spectra and waveletograms of time series of most daily and monthly mean characteristics. Significant oscillations were observed with periods of 19–23 and 37–39 days and 26.5–27.5, 35–37, and 42–45 months.
Keywords:jet streams spatiotemporal variability upper troposphere geostationary satellites spectral and wavelet analysis
We thank the employees from SRC Planeta T.L. Kormashova, and A.N. Filinov for providing the SEVIRI radiometer measurements.
- 2.Atmosfera: Spravochnik (The Atmosphere: A Handbook), Leningrad: Hydrometeoizdat, 1991.Google Scholar
- 4.Baranov, A.A. and Solonin, S.V., Aviatsionnaya meteorologiya (Aviation Meteorology), Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1975.Google Scholar
- 5.Bogatkin, O.G., Aviatsionnaya meteorologiya (Aviation Meteorology), St. Petersburg: RGGMU, 2005.Google Scholar
- 7.Doklad ob osobennostyakh klimata na territorii Rossiyskoi Federatsii za 2015 god (Report on Climate Peculiarities in the Territory of the Russian Federation for 2015), Moscow: 2016.Google Scholar
- 9.Hall, R., Jones, J., Hanna, E., Scaife, A., and Erdélyi, R., Drivers and potential predictability of summer time North Atlantic polar front jet variability, Clim. Dyn., 2016. doi 10.1007/s00382-016-3307-0Google Scholar
- 10.Ivangorodskiy, R.V. and Nerushev, A.F., Characteristics of upper tropospheric jet streams inferred from the data of European geostationary meteorological satellites, Sovrem. Probl. Distantsionnogo Zondirovaniya Zemli Kosmosa, 2014, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 45–53.Google Scholar
- 15.Nerushev, A.F., Jet Streams in the Earth’s atmosphere, Zemlya Vselennaya, 2014, no. 6, pp. 16–30.Google Scholar
- 18.Palmen, E. and Newton, C.W., Atmospheric Circulation Systems, New York: Academic, 1969; Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1973.Google Scholar
- 20.Pogosyan, H.P., Struinye techeniya v atmosphere (Jet Streams in the Atmosphere), Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1960.Google Scholar
- 23.Visheratin, K.N. and Kuznetsov, V.I., Spatiotemporal variations in the phase of main oscillations of total ozone content from TOMS-SBUV satellite data, Sovrem. Probl. Distantsionnogo Zondirovaniya Zemli Kosmosa, 2012, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 192–199.Google Scholar
- 25.Vorob’ev, V.I., Struynye techeniya v vysokikh i umerennykh shirotakh (Jet Streams at High and Moderate Altitudes), Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1960.Google Scholar
- 26.Vorob’ev, V.I., Sinopticheskaya meteorologiya (Synoptic Meteorology), Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1991.Google Scholar