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International Journal of Tropical Insect Science

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 135–154 | Cite as

A review of the issues and management of the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Rhynchophoridae) in coconut and date palm during the last one hundred years

  • J. R. FaleiroEmail author
Review Article

Abstract

The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), a concealed tissue borer, is a lethal pest of palms and is reported to attack 17 palm species worldwide. Although the weevil was first reported on coconut Cocos nucifera from South Asia, during the last two decades it has gained a foothold on date palm Phoenix dactylifera in several Middle Eastern countries from where it has moved to Africa and Europe, mainly due to the movement of infested planting material. In the Mediterranean region, RPW also severely damages Phoenix canariensis. Currently, the pest is reported in c. 15% of the coconut-growing countries and in nearly 50% of the date palm-growing countries. Infested palms, if not detected early and treated, often die. However, palms in the early stages of attack respond to chemical treatment with insecticide. RPW has been managed in several countries employing an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy including the use of food-baited pheromone traps. Early detection of infestation in the field is important for the success of any RPW-IPM programme. Ideally, movement of planting material from infested plantations within the country and also From one country to another needs to be stopped. Wherever this is not possible, it is essential to implement strict pre- and post-entry quarantine regimes, wherein only pest-free and certified planting material can be transported. The existing pheromone-based IPM programme can be strengthened by intensifying the search for effective natural enemies, coupled with the introduction of resistance in palms to RPW. This article reviews the work done during the last 100 years on various aspects of RPW viz. life history, damage and symptoms of attack, seasonal activity, spatial distribution, host range, IPM and its main components, including trapping adult weevils and chemical control, besides biological control, host plant resistance and male sterile technique.

Key words

Rhynchophorus ferrugineus date palm coconut review management 

Résumé

Le charançon rouge du palmier (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), un foreur des troncs, est un ravageur mortel des palmiers, signalé sur 17 espèces de palmiers à travers le monde. Bien que signalé pour la première fois sur le cocotier Cocos nucifera en Asie du Sud, au cours des deux dernières décades, il s’est établi sur le palmier dattier Phoenix dactylifera dans plusieurs pays du Moyen-Orient d’où il s’est propagé en Afrique et en Europe, du fait d’échanges de matériel contaminé. En région méditerranéenne, RPW cause également des dégâts importants à Phoenix canariensis. Actuellement, il est signalé dans 15% des surfaces cultivées en cocotiers et près de 50% des surfaces cultivées en palmier dattier. Si les palmiers infestés ne sont pas détectés précocement et traités, ils meurent. Toutefois, les arbres infestés, traités précocement, répondent bien aux insecticides. La lutte intégrée contre le charançon a été pratiquée dans plusieurs pays à l’aide notamment de pièges à phéromones. Toutefois, pour être efficace, ce type de lutte nécessite un dépistage précoce de l’infestation. Dans l’absolu, il faudrait arrêter le transport des jeunes plants à partir des régions infestées et d’un pays à l’autre. Quand cela apparaît impossible, il faudrait imposer une quarantaine avant et après le transport et seul du matériel contrô lé pourra être transporté. Les programmes actuels de lutte intégrée par piégeage phéromonal pourront être renforcés par le recours à des ennemis naturels efficaces couplé à l’utilisation de palmiers résistants au charançon. Cet article fait le point des travaux réalisés au cours des 100 dernières années sur RPW, dans les domaines de la biologie, des dégâts, de l’écologie (cycle saisonnier, distribution spatiale, spectre alimentaire) et de la lutte intégrée (piégeage des adultes, lutte chimique, lutte biologique, lutte variétale et lutte autocide).

Mots clés

Rhynchophorus ferrugineus palmier dattier cocotier article de synthèse gestion 

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© ICIPE 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Protection LaboratoryICAR Research Complex for GoaEla, Old GoaIndia

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