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Lethal and sublethal effects of different ecotypes of Melia azedarach against Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

  • Gursharan SinghEmail author
  • Vishaldeep Kaur
  • Darshan Singh
Article

Abstract

Shade-dried, powdered drupes of Melia azedarach L. were selected from three states in India, each representing a different geographical region, viz. Rajasthan (arid), Punjab (open plains), and Himachal Pradesh (hilly). Drupes were extracted in chloroform: methanol (9:1) and evaluated against second instar larvae of Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) using a ‘leaf-disc dip’ bioassay. The ecotype from the arid region of Rajasthan yielded the lowest LC50 (1.47%), followed by that from the open plains of Punjab (1.79%) and the hilly areas of Himachal Pradesh, which yielded the maximum LC50 (2.29%). The survivors demonstrated various types of sublethal effects such as prolongation of larval period (7.0–7.8 days compared to 6.3–6.5 days in the control), reduction in pupal weight (36.0–38.4mg/10 pupae in comparison to 54.4–56.0 mg in the control), deformation of pupae (up to 69.7%) and inhibition of adult emergence (up to 92%). A highly pronounced curtailment of fecundity (up to 10.4 against 73.2 in the control), significant reduction in oviposition period of the adults (up to 3.5 days compared to 7.4 days in the control) and longevity (5.5–7.8 days against 8.9–10.3 days in the control), were also recorded. The extracts produced from trees in the arid region of Rajasthan caused both lethal and sublethal effects following treatment of the second instar larvae of P. xylostella. Only 1.0% normal adults survived at the end of the study compared to 3.5 and 5.5% adult survival in the extracts from the open plains and hilly area ecotypes, respectively. An understanding of the bases of these variations in the toxicity of the crude extracts from the M. azedarach ecotypes growing in different climate conditions may open up the possibility of propagation and genetic improvement of the desired traits in the future.

Key words

Plutella xylostella diamondback moth Melia azedarach plant extracts toxicity 

Mots clés

Plutella xylostella teigne du chou Melia azedarach létal sub-létal 

Résumé

Des poudres, de drupes de Melia azedarach L séchées à l’ombre, ont été sélectionnées dans 3 états de l’Inde caractérisés par des conditions écologiques différentes, à savoir le Rajasthan (une région aride), le Punjab (des plaines ouvertes) et Himachal Pradesh (une région vallonnée). Des extraits de ces poudres obtenus par un traitement avec un mélange de chloroforme et de méthanol (9:1) ont été testés sur des chenilles de 2ème stade de Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) à l’aide de la méthode des disques imprégnés. La plus faible LC50 (1,47%) a été obtenue à partir de l’extrait de la région aride du Rajasthan, suivie par les plaines du Punjab (1,79%) et la plus forte à partir de l’extrait en provenance de la région vallonnée d’Himachal Pradesh (2,29%). Les chenilles survivantes ont montré différents types d’effets sub-létaux, tels qu’un allongement du développement larvaire (7,0–7,8 jours contre 6,3–6,5 jours chez le témoin), une réduction du poids nymphal (36,0–38,4 mg/10 chrysalides contre 54,4–56,0 mg chez le témoin), une malformation des chrysalides (jusqu’à 69,7%) et une altération de l’émergence des adultes (jusqu’à 92%). Une réduction importante de la fécondité (au maximum de 10,4 contre 73,2 chez le témoin), de la période d’oviposition des adultes (au maximum de 3,5 jours contre 7,4 chez le témoin) et de la longévité (5,5–7,8 jours contre 8,9–10,3 jours chez le témoin) a également été constatée. Seuls 1,0% d’adultes normaux ont survécu à la fin de l’expérimentation avec les extraits provenant des arbres de la région aride du Rajasthan contre 3,5 et 5,5% respectivement avec les extraits provenant du Punjab et d’Himachal Pradesh. La compréhension des raisons de ces différences de toxicité selon l’origine des extraits devrait permettre d’améliorer dans le futur la production d’insecticide à base de poudre de M. azedarach.

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Copyright information

© ICIPE 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gursharan Singh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vishaldeep Kaur
    • 1
  • Darshan Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

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