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Antifeedant activities of crude seed extracts of tropical African spices against Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

  • N. N. Ntonifor
  • I. Mueller-HarveyEmail author
  • H. F. Van Emden
  • R. H. Brown
Article

Abstract

The antifeedant activities of Piper guineense Schum et Thonn (Piperaceae), Aframomum melegueta (Rosk) K. Schum (Zingiberaceae), Aframomum titration (Pareira) K. Schum (Zingiberaceae) and Afrostyrax kamerunensis Perkins and Gilg (Huaceae) seed extracts were investigated in laboratory dual- and no-choice bioassays using third-instar Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae. In the dual-choice test, the hexane and methanol extracts of A. melegueta showed potent dose-dependent antifeedant activity at concentrations of ≥300 ppm and the water extract at ≥ 500 ppm, as illustrated by significantly lower leaf consumptions. Aframomum citratum methanol and water extracts exhibited antifeedant activity at ≥300 and ≥ 1000 ppm, respectively, but the hexane and ethanol extracts did not affect feeding at any concentration. Piper guineense ethanol and water extracts showed dose-dependent antifeedant effects at ≥300 and ≥ 500 ppm, respectively, and the methanol extract was active only at 1000 ppm. None of the extracts of the highly aromatic A. kamerunensis exhibited antifeedant activity at any of the tested concentrations. In the no-choice bioassays, extracts with antifeedant activity in the dual-choice tests also showed dose-dependent feeding inhibition. The hexane and methanol extracts of A. melegueta were effective in the no-choice tests at ≥ 100 and ≥ 500 ppm, respectively, and the water extract at ≥ 300 ppm. Similarly, the A. citratum water and methanol extracts were active at ≥ 500 ppm and the P. guineense water and ethanol extracts at ≥ 100 ppm. GC/MS chromatography of A. melegueta hexane and methanol extracts revealed volatile constituents with known anti-insect activity. The hexane and methanol extracts of A. melegueta, the methanol extract of A. citratum and the water and ethanol extracts of P. guineense may have potential for use by subsistence farmers.

Key words

Piper guineense Aframomum melegueta Aframomum citratum Afrostyrax kamerunensis seed extracts botanical insecticide Spodoptera littoralis 

Mots clés

Piper guineense Aframomum melegueta Aframomum citratum Afrostyrax kamerunensis extraits de graines insecticide naturel Spodoptera littoralis 

Résumé

Les activités anti-appétantes des extraits de graines de Piper guineense Schum et Thonn (Piperaceae), Aframomum melegueta (Rosk) K. Schum (Zingiberaceae), Aframomum citratum (Pareira) K. Schum (Zingiberaceae) et d’Afrostyrax kamerunensis Perkins et Gilg (Huaceae) ont été étudiés au laboratoire en situation de choix et de non-choix sur des larves de 3ème stade de Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval). En situation de choix, les extraits à l’hexane et au méthanol de A. melegueta montrent une activité anti-appétante fortement dépendante des concentrations lorsqu’elles sont ≥ 300 ppm tout comme l’extrait aqueux à une concentration ≥ 500 ppm, comme l’indique la faible consommation des feuilles. Les extraits au méthanol et aqueux d’Aframomum citratum ont une action anti-appétante à des concentrations ≥ 300 et ≥ 1000 ppm respectivement, alors que les extraits à l’héxane et au méthanol n’ont aucun effet. Les extraits à l’éthanol et aqueux de Piper guineense ont des effets anti-appétants dépendants des concentrations lorsqu’elles sont ≥ 300 et ≥ 500 ppm respectivement alors que l’extrait au méthanol est actif seulement à 1000 ppm. Aucun des extraits du très aromatique A. kamerunensi ne montrent d’effet anti-appétants quelque soit la concentration. Nous avons également testé en situation de non-choix, les extraits ayant montré des effets dépendants de la concentration en situation de choix. Les extraits à l’hexane et au méthanol de A. melegueta sont efficaces en situation de non-choix aux concentrations ≥ 100 et ≥ 500 ppm respectivement, et l’extrait aqueux à une concentration ≥ 300 ppm. De même, les extraits aqueux et au méthanol d’A. citratum sont actifs à des concentrations ≥ 500 ppm et les extraits aqueux et à l’éthanol de P. guineense à une concentration ≥ 100 ppm. Une Chromatographie GC/MS des extraits à l’hexane et au méthanol d’ A. melegueta révèle l’existence de composés volatils ayant des activités insecticides connues. Les extraits à l’éthanol de A. melegueta, au méthanol de A. citratum et aqueux et à l’éthanol de P. guineense pourraient être utilisés par des fermiers.

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Copyright information

© ICIPE 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. N. Ntonifor
    • 1
  • I. Mueller-Harvey
    • 2
    Email author
  • H. F. Van Emden
    • 2
  • R. H. Brown
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Life SciencesUniversity of BueaBueaCameroon
  2. 2.Department of AgricultureThe University of ReadingReadingUK

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