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Mammalian Biology

, Volume 67, Issue 5, pp 276–285 | Cite as

Community structure and activity of bats (Chiroptera) over different water bodies

  • M. CiechanowskiEmail author
Original investigation

Abstract

The species composition and activity of bats flying over a. small river (surrounded by dense forest), a. 0.2 ha pond on a. Large clearing in the middle of a. forest complex, and a. 0.02 ha pond near the village was studied during 1998–1999 in the Darzlubska Forest (N Poland). Bats were captured in mist nets and observed with an ultrasound detector. Large differences were found in bats community structure and level of activity between the capture points. Over the river, the dominant species was Myotis daubentonii (84%), with a. regular occurrence of Pipistrettus pipistrellus s. L, while on a. forest water reservoir Nyctatus noctuta (63%) and P. nathusii (21%) were most numerous. Noctules and pipistrelles (both with Eptesicus serotinus) dominated over the small pond near the village. Species diversity index (H’) was the highest over the small ponds, while activity of bats was the highest over the river. The studied artificial reservoirs were situated on clearings and meadows, which made them accessible for bats adapted to flight over open areas (Nyctatus, Eptesicus), unable to feed and drink in the cluttered habitat of the river with a. canopy closed over the water surface. Species strongly associated with waters as feeding grounds (e. g. M. daubentonii), seem to avoid small, isolated ponds during their night time activity.

Key words

Chiroptera species composition activity northern Poland 

Gesellschaftsstruktur und Aktivität von Fledermäusen (Chiroptera) über verschiedenen Wasserkörpern

Zusammenfassung

In den Jahren 1998–1999 wurden Artenspektrum und Aktivität von Fledermäusen im Darzlubska Wald untersucht und zwar über einem kleinen, von dichtem Wald umgebenem Fluß, über einem in der Mitte einer Waldlichtung künstlich erstellten 0,2 ha Teich und an einem 0,02 ha Teich in der Nähe eines Dorfes. Die Fledermäuse wurden einerseits in Netzen erbeutet, andererseits mit einem Ultraschalldetektor geortet und artlich bestimmt. Auf diese Weise konnten signifikante Unterschiede in der artlichen Zusammensetzung der Gesellschaften und in den Aktivitäten in den drei Habitaten nachgewiesen werden. Über dem Fluß dominierte Myotis daubentonii (84%), bei regelmäßiger Anwesenheit von PipistreUus pipistreUus s. I. Am Teich im Wald waren Nyctalus noctula (63%) und P. nathusii (21%) die häufigsten Arten. Die Abendsegler und PipistreUus spp. (mit Eptesicus seroti-nus) dominierten ebenfalls am kleinem Teich in der Nähe des Dorfes. Der Diversitätsindex für Arten (H’) war am höchsten an den Teichen, die Aktivität der Fledermäuse war hingegen am stärksten über dem Fluß. Die untersuchten angelegten Teiche liegen an Lichtungen und Wiesen. Sie sind deswegen als Habitat für solche Arten sehr viel geeigneter, die zur Jagd im Freiraum adaptiert sind (Nyctalus, Eptesicus). Nyctalus und Eptesicus suchten am Fluß weder Nahrung noch tranken sie dort, die Wasserfläche ist hier von Baumzweigen überdeckt. Jene Arten, die enge Beziehungen mit dem Wasser als Futterplatz zeigen (z. B. M. daubentonii), scheinen während ihrer nächtlichen Aktivität kleine, isolierte Teiche zu meiden.

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Copyright information

© Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Vertebrates Ecology and ZoologyUniversity of GdanskGdanskPoland

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