Populism, historical discourse and foreign policy: the case of Poland’s Law and Justice government


This article analyses how, in Poland, the populist political orientation of the ruling party (Law and Justice—PiS) has coloured the historical discourse of the government and has affected, in turn, its foreign policy and diplomatic relations. We argue that the historical discourse of the PiS government is a reflection of the party’s reliance on populism as a political mode of articulation in that it seeks to promote a Manichean, dichotomic and totalizing re-definition of the categories of victim, hero and perpetrator—and of Poland’s roles in this trinity. The article details the direct and indirect repercussions of PiS populist-inspired historical posture on Poland’s foreign policy by analysing its policies towards—and relations with—Ukraine and Germany. As such, the article sheds light on the under-explored links between populism and historical memory and makes a contribution to the nascent scholarship on the foreign policy of populist governments.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Russia became prominent in the historical discourse of the PiS government as of 2019 and in the context of a historical dispute over the causes of World War II and responsibility for the Holocaust largely triggered by Vladimir Putin. See: ‘Russia and Poland’s Holocaust War of Words, in Quotes’, The Moscow Times, 20 January 2020. https://www.themoscowtimes.com/2020/01/28/russia-and-polands-holocaust-war-of-words-in-quotes-a69066.

  2. 2.

    This is true, for instance, of the emphasis on Poland’s martyrdom and heroism in WW2, the adherence to the totalitarian paradigm equating Nazism and Communism or the belief in a special Polish role in Europe’s history (see: Siddi and Gaweda 2019, 4).

  3. 3.

    ‘Premier: nie będzie zgody na wypłatę odszkodowań z naszej strony’, PolskieRadio24, 05/05/2019. https://polskieradio24.pl/5/1222/Artykul/2303654,Premier-nie-bedzie-zgody-na-wyplate-odszkodowan-z-naszej-strony.

  4. 4.

    For instance, in taking over the Gdansk WWII museum, which had been initially conceived by an historian close to the PO in line with the memory politics of the previous government, the PiS Deputy Minister of Culture Jarosław Sellin argued that ‘changes were necessary because the original exhibition purportedly adopted a German point of view’ (Siddi and Gaweda 2019, 10), while the former PO leader Donald Tusk, a member of the borderland Kashubian minority, is often depicted as a Nazi in PiS-related fringe right media.

  5. 5.

    ‘Podczas Okrągłego Stołu komuniści podzielili się władzą z własnymi agentami? Zybertowicz wyjaśnia’, Dziennik.pl, 07/02/2019. https://wiadomosci.dziennik.pl/polityka/artykuly/590761,zybertowicz-walesa-okragly-stol-komunisci-agenci-wladza-prl-solidarnosc.html.

  6. 6.

    ‘Kaczyński do PO: “Jesteście partią zewnętrzną”’, Gazeta Prawna, 09/03/2017. http://www.gazetaprawna.pl/artykuly/1026095,kaczynski-do-po-partia-zewnetrzna-pis.html.

  7. 7.

    Cited in: ‘Minister Krzysztof Szczerski proponuje wystawianie Polakom katolickich paszportów’, Newsweek Polska, 24/04/2019. https://www.newsweek.pl/polska/minister-krzysztof-szczerski-proponuje-wystawianie-polakom-katolickich-paszportow-to/gr2e23s.

  8. 8.

    ‘Trump and Poland: From Love to Hate in Under Nine Months’, Daily Beast, 03/09/2018. https://www.thedailybeast.com/trump-and-poland-from-love-to-hate-in-under-nine-months.

  9. 9.

    See: https://www.msz.gov.pl/en/foreign_policy/german_concentration_camps/.

  10. 10.

    For instance, in replacement of the expression ‘Polish death camp’, the Polish MFA has proposed the following on its aforementioned dedicated webpage: ‘German (Nazi) concentration camp/extermination camp in the territory of German-occupied Poland’. See: https://www.msz.gov.pl/en/foreign_policy/german_concentration_camps/.

  11. 11.

    See the interview with the director of President Duda’s press office: ‘Zawsze będziemy krajem Wschodu: Z Markiem Magierowskim rozmawia Łukasz Pawłowski’, Kultura Liberalna, 24/05/2016. https://kulturaliberalna.pl/2016/05/24/marek-magierowski-andrzej-duda-ocena-prezydent/.

  12. 12.

    Prometheanism emerged already under Poland’s century long partitions and ascribed a pivotal role to Poland as the Prometheus of Eastern Europe, carrying the flame of freedom to its fellow nations to the East.

  13. 13.

    ‘Polskie ekshumacje wciąż zakazane’, Rzeczpospolita, 26/10/2017. https://www.rp.pl/Polityka/310269815-Polskie-ekshumacje-wciaz-zakazane.html.

  14. 14.

    ‘Tyklo u Nas’, wPolityce.pl, 04/11/2017. https://wpolityce.pl/polityka/365514-tylko-u-nas-waszczykowski-o-oswiadczeniu-ukrainskiego-msz-dosc-niefrasobliwie-kopiuja-droge-ktora-polscy-biskupi-zaproponowali-niemcom.

  15. 15.

    ‘Witold Waszczykowski na Ukrainie: "Komu przeszkadzały te lwy? Kto wszczyna problemy?"’, Gazeta Prawna, 05/11/2017. https://www.gazetaprawna.pl/artykuly/1082778,ukraina-witold-waszczykowski-zlozyl-hold-obroncom-lwowa-na-cmentarzu-orlat.html. Also known as the «Eaglet Cemetery» and constituting a part of Lviv’s largest historic cemetery, the Defenders of Lwów memorial is the burial site for the Polish soldiers and volunteers, as well as American and French allies, who died during the Polish–Ukrainian conflict over Lwów/Lviv in 1918 and the Polish–Soviet War of 1920.

  16. 16.

    The proposed amendment to Article 2, while passed through the Sejm with the support of the PiS majority, was proposed by the nationalist wing of the right-wing populist Kukiz’15 Movement.

  17. 17.

    Paweł Wroński, ‘Dalej wspieramy Ukrainę’, Gazeta Wyborcza, 16/12/2015. http://wyborcza.pl/1,75968,19351493,dalej-wspieramy-ukraine.html?disableRedirects=true.

  18. 18.

    See: https://natemat.pl/224975,zdumiewajaca-wypowiedz-szefa-gabinetu-witolda-waszczykowskiego-istnienie-ukrainy-nie-jest-warunkiem-istnienia-wolnej-polski.

  19. 19.

    ‘Waszczykowski dla "wSieci" o stosunkach polsko-ukraińskich: Nasz przekaz jest bardzo jasny: z Banderą do Europy nie wejdziecie’, wPolityce.pl, 3/07/2017. https://wpolityce.pl/polityka/347083-waszczykowski-dla-wsieci-o-stosunkach-polsko-ukrainskich-nasz-przekaz-jest-bardzo-jasny-z-bandera-do-europy-nie-wejdziecie.


  1. Balcer, Adam, Piotr Buras, Grzegorz Gromadzki, and Eugeniusz Smolar. 2017. In a Clinch—The European Policy of the PiS Government. Warsaw: Batory Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  2. BBC. 2018. ‘Polish Leader Apologises to Expelled Jews’. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-43330963. 8 March 2018.

  3. Bucholc, Marta and Maciej Komornik. 2019. ‘The Polish ‘Holocaust Law’ revisited: The Devastating Effects of Prejudice-Mongering’. Cultures of History Forum. https://www.cultures-of-history.uni-jena.de/politics/poland/the-polish-holocaust-law-revisited-the-devastating-effects-of-prejudice-mongering/. 19 February 2019.

  4. Buras, Piotr, and Josef Janning. 2018. ‘Divided at the Centre: Germany, Poland, and the Troubles of the Trump Era’. European Council on Foreign Relations. https://www.ecfr.eu/publications/summary/divided_at_the_centre_germany_poland_and_the_troubles_of_the_trump_era. 19 December 2018.

  5. Cadier, David. 2012. Après le retour à l'Europe: les politiques étrangères des pays d'Europe centrale. Politique Etrangère 77(3): 573–584.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Cadier, David. 2019a. The Geopoliticisation of the EU’s Eastern Partnership. Geopolitics 24(1): 71–99.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Cadier, David. 2019b. How Populism Spills over into Foreign Policy. Carnegie Europe. https://carnegieeurope.eu/strategiceurope/78102. 10 January 2019.

  8. Caramani, Daniele, and Luca Manucci. 2019. National Past and Populism: The Re-Elaboration of Fascism and Its Impact on Right-Wing Populism in Western Europe. West European Politics 42(6): 1159–1187.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Charnysh, Volha, and Evgeny Finkel. 2018. ‘Poland’s New Holocaust Law Is Just the Latest Attempt to Officially Redefine Its History’. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2018/02/03/polands-new-holocaust-law-is-just-the-latest-attempt-to-officially-redefine-its-history. 3 February 2018.

  10. Chryssogelos, Angelos. 2017. ‘Populism in Foreign Policy’. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. http://politics.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228637-e-467.

  11. De Cleen, Benjamin, and Yannis Stavrakakis. 2017. Distinctions and Articulations: A Discourse Theoretical Framework for the Study of Populism and Nationalism. Javnost The Public 24(4): 301–319.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Doty, Roxanne Lynn. 1993. Foreign Policy as Social Construction: A Post-Positivist Analysis of U.S. Counterinsurgency Policy in the Philippines. International Studies Quarterly 37(3): 297–320.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Duda, Andrzej. 2015a. ‘Andrzej Duda o Polityce Zagranicznej: Będą Głębokie Korekty (Interview)’. Wiadomości. https://wiadomosci.wp.pl/andrzej-duda-o-polityce-zagranicznej-beda-glebokie-korekty-6027724287337089a. 5 August 2018.

  14. Duda, Andrzej. 2015b. ‘Orędzie Prezydenta RP Andrzeja Dudy Przed Zgromadzeniem Narodowym’, Speech by the President of Poland. https://www.prezydent.pl/aktualnosci/wypowiedzi-prezydenta-rp/wystapienia/art,1,oredzie-prezydenta-rp-andrzeja-dudy-przed-zgromadzeniem-narodowym.html. 6 August 2015.

  15. Duda, Andrzej. 2015c. ‘Wystąpienie Prezydenta Podczas Obchodów 45. Rocznicy Grudnia’70’. Speech by the President of Poland. https://www.prezydent.pl/aktualnosci/wypowiedzi-prezydenta-rp/wystapienia/art,21,wystapienie-prezydenta-podczas-obchodow-45-rocznicy-grudnia-70.html. 17 December 2015.

  16. Dunn, Kevin C., and Iver B. Neumann. 2016. Undertaking Discourse Analysis for Social Research. Ann Arbor, IL: University of Michigan Press.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Halbwachs, Maurice. 1992. On Collective Memory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Hansen, Lene. 2006. Security as Practice: Discourse Analysis and the Bosnian War. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Harper, Jo. 2018. Poland’s Memory Wars: Essays on Illiberalism. New York: Central European University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Houghton, David Patrick. 1996. The Role of Analogical Reasoning in Novel Foreign-Policy Situations. British Journal of Political Science 26(4): 523–552.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Howarth, David, Aletta J. Norval, and Yannis Stavrakakis. 2000. Discourse Theory and Political Analysis: Identities, Hegemonies, and Social Change. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Howarth, David, and Yannis Stavrakakis. 2000. Introducing Discourse Theory and Political Analysis. In Discourse Theory and Political Analysis: Identities, Hegemonies, and Social Change, ed. David Howarth, Aletta J. Norval, and Yannis Stavrakakis, 1–23. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Howarth, David, and Jacob Torfing. 2005. Discourse Theory in European Politics: Identity, Policy and Governance. Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  24. IPN. 2018. USTAWA z dnia 26 stycznia 2018 r. o zmianie ustawy o Instytucie Pamięci Narodowej—Komisji Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu, ustawy o grobach i cmentarzach wojennych, ustawy o muzeach oraz ustawy o odpowiedzialności podmiotów zbiorowych za czyny zabronione pod groźbą kary (Dz.U.2018.369 z dnia 14 February 2018). https://ipn.gov.pl/pl/o-ipn/ustawa/24216,Ustawa.html.

  25. Janicki, Mariusz, and Wiesław Władyka. 2015. Władcy Historii. Polityka 39(3028): 24–27.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Jørgensen, Marianne W., and Louise Phillips. 2002. Discourse Analysis as Theory and Method, 1st ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Kazharski, Aliaksei. 2018. The End of “Central Europe”? The Rise of the Radical Right and the Contestation of Identities in Slovakia and the Visegrad Four. Geopolitics 23(4): 754–780.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Khong, Yuen Foong. 1992. Analogies at War: Korea, Munich, Dien Bien Phu, and the Vietnam Decisions of 1965. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Klymenko, Lina. 2019. Forging Ukrainian National Identity Through Remembrance of World War II. National Identities 22(2): 133–150.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Kowal, Pawel. 2019. Testament Prometeusza. Warsaw: Kolegium Europy Wschodniej, Instytut Studiów Politycznych PAN.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Krebs, Ronald, and Patrick Thaddeus Jackson. 2007. Twisting Tongues and Twisting Arms: The Power of Political Rhetoric. European Journal of International Relations 13(1): 35–66.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Kurska, Jolanta. 2016. ‘Quo vadis, Polonia ?’ La Vie des idées. http://www.laviedesidees.fr/Quo-vadis-Poloniae.html. 22 June 2016.

  33. Kuzniar, Roman. 2009. Poland’s Foreign Policy after 1989. Warsaw: Budrich UniPress Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Kuźniar, Roman. 2016. Retreat from the Polish Raison d’Etre or National Interest. Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny 78(4): 5–16.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Laclau, Ernesto. 2005a. On Populist Reason, Reprint ed. London: Verso.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Laclau, Ernesto. 2005b. Populism: What’s in a Name? In Populism and the Mirror of Democracy, ed. Francisco Panizza, 32–49. London: Verso.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Laclau, Ernesto, and Chantal Mouffe. 2001. Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics, 2nd ed. London: Verso.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Lebow, Richard Ned, Wulf Kansteiner, and Claudio Fogu. 2006. The Politics of Memory in Postwar Europe. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Longhurst, Kerry. 2013. Where from, Where to? New and Old Configurations in Poland’s Foreign and Security Policy Priorities. Communist and Post-Communist Studies 46(3): 363–372.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Mazzini, Mateusz. 2018. ‘Poland’s Right-Wing Government Is Rewriting History—with Itself as Hero’. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2018/02/27/polands-right-wing-government-is-rewriting-history-with-itself-as-hero. 27 February 2018.

  41. Mink, Georges. 2017. Les historiens polonais face à l’expérience de la «démocratie illibérale». Histoire@Politique 31(1): 36–45.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Moffitt, Benjamin, and Simon Tormey. 2014. Rethinking Populism: Politics, Mediatisation and Political Style. Political Studies 62(2): 381–397.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Mudde, Cas. 2004. The Populist Zeitgeist. Government and Opposition 39(4): 541–563.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Müller, Jan-Werner. 2002. Introduction: The Power of Memory, the Memory of Power and the Power over Memory. In Memory and Power in Post-War Europe, ed. Jan-Werner Muller, 1–36. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Müller, Jan-Werner. 2016. What Is Populism?. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Plagemann, Johannes, and Sandra Destradi. 2019. Populism and Foreign Policy: The Case of India. Foreign Policy Analysis 15(2): 283–301.

    Google Scholar 

  47. ‘Poland Revives German War Reparations Demand’. 2017. euractiv.com. https://www.euractiv.com/section/justice-home-affairs/news/poland-revives-german-war-reparations-demand. 3 August 2017.

  48. ‘Poland’s Holocaust Law Seeks to Weaponize Memory’. 2018. Bloomberg. https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2018-02-01/poland-s-holocaust-law-seeks-to-weaponize-memory. 1 February 2018.

  49. Rooduijn, M. et al. 2019. The PopuList: An Overview of Populist, Far Right, Far Left and Eurosceptic Parties in Europe. http://www.popu-list.org. 16 June 2020.

  50. Sejm. 2016. ‘Uchwała Sejmu w sprawie oddania hołdu ofiarom ludobójstwa dokonanego przez nacjonalistów ukraińskich na obywatelach II RP w latach 1943–1945’. http://www.sejm.gov.pl/Sejm8.nsf/komunikat.xsp?documentId=2D76E3019FA691C3C1257FF800303676. 22 July 2016.

  51. Siddi, Marco, and Barbara Gaweda. 2019. The National Agents of Transnational Memory and Their Limits: The Case of the Museum of the Second World War in Gdańsk. Journal of Contemporary European Studies 27(2): 258–271.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Sikorski, Radosław. 2011. ‘Poland and the Future of the European Union’, Speech by the Foreign Minister of Poland, 28 November 2011, Berlin.

  53. Stanley, Ben. 2008. The Thin Ideology of Populism. Journal of Political Ideologies 13(1): 95–110.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Stanley, Ben, and Mikolaj Czesnik. 2019. Populism in Poland: A Comparative Perspective. In Populism Around the World, ed. Daniel Stockemer, 67–87. Cham: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Stavrakakis, Yannis. 2017. ‘Populism and Hegemony’. In The Oxford Handbook of Populism, eds. Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser, Paul Taggart, Paulina Ochoa, and Pierre Ostiguy. 535–54. https://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198803560.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780198803560-e-2. 10 June 2019.

  56. Stavrakakis, Yannis, and Giorgos Katsambekis. 2014. Left-Wing Populism in the European Periphery: The Case of SYRIZA. Journal of Political Ideologies 19(2): 119–142.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Subotić, Jelena. 2016. Narrative, Ontological Security, and Foreign Policy Change. Foreign Policy Analysis 12(4): 610–627.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Szczerbiak, Aleks. 2017. An Anti-Establishment Backlash That Shook up the Party System? The October 2015 Polish Parliamentary Election. European Politics and Society 18(4): 404–427.

    Google Scholar 

  59. ‘Szczerski: Niemcy, nasz pierwszy partner’. 2016. Rzeczpospolita. https://www.rp.pl/Swiat/306099888-Szczerski-Niemcy-nasz-pierwszy-partner.html. 10 June 2016.

  60. Szoszyn, Rusłan. 2017. ‘Polskie ekshumacje wciąż zakazane’. Rzeczpospolita. https://www.rp.pl/Polityka/310269815-Polskie-ekshumacje-wciaz-zakazane.html. 26 October 2017.

  61. Szulecki, Kacper. 2015. Heretical geopolitics of Central Europe: Dissidents intellectuals and an alternative European order. Geoforum 65: 25–36.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Szulecki, Kacper. 2016. Towards a liberal geopolitics. In: Cracking Borders, Rising Walls: The Crisis of the European Order, ed. Kacper Szulecki, 11–38. Warsaw: Biblioteka Kultury Liberalnej.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Szulecki, Kacper. 2019. Dissidents in Communist Central Europe: Human Rights and the Emergence of New Transnational Actors. London: Palgrave.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Traba, Robert. 2009. Przeszlosc w terazniejszosci. Poznań: Poznanskie.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Tygodnik Powszechny. 2020. ‘Resort Glińskiego i pięć milionów euro’. Tygodnik Powszechny. https://www.tygodnikpowszechny.pl/resort-glinskiego-i-piec-milionow-euro-162285?fbclid=IwAR3PlGZj9tJnVYoZBybdodg24E7xgXmcfqWl-duhjlOJms0e-3fZ87_iqvo. 25 February 2020.

  66. Verbeek, Bertjan, and Andrej Zaslove. 2017. ‘Populism and Foreign Policy’. In The Oxford Handbook of Populism, eds. Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser, Paul Taggart, Paulina Ochoa Espejo, and Pierre Ostiguy. Oxford University Press, 384–405. http://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198803560.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780198803560-e-15. 19 October 2018.

  67. Vertzberger, Yaacov Y.I. 1986. Foreign Policy Decisionmakers As Practical-Intuitive Historians: Applied History and Its Shortcomings. International Studies Quarterly 30(2): 223.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Waever, Ole. 2002. Identity, Communities and Foreign Policy. Discourse Analysis as Foreign Policy Theory. In European Integration and National Identity: The Challenge of the Nordic States, ed. Lene Hansen and Ole Waever, 20–49. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Waszczykowski, Witold. 2016. ‘Information of the Minister of Foreign Affairs on the Polish Government’s Foreign Policy in 2016’, Speech by the Foreign Minister of Poland. 29 January 2016. https://www.msz.gov.pl/en/news/minister_witold_waszczykowski_on_priorities_of_polish_diplomacy. 15 June 2019.

  70. Wawrzyński, Patryk. 2017. The Government’s Remembrance Policy: Five Theoretical Hypotheses. Polish Political Science Yearbook 1(46): 294–312.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Weldes, Jutta. 1999. Constructing National Interests: The United States and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Weyland, Kurt. 2017. ‘Populism: A Political-Strategic Approach’. In The Oxford Handbook of Populism, eds. Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser, Paul Taggart, Paulina Ochoa, and Pierre Ostiguy. https://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198803560.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780198803560-e-2. 10 June 2019.

  73. Wieliński, Bartosz. 2018. ‘Alarm MSZ ws. reputacji kraju: Polska na dnie’. wyborcza.pl. http://wyborcza.pl/7,75399,23054728,alarm-msz-ws-reputacji-kraju-polska-na-dnie.html. 22 February 2018.

  74. Wigura, Karolina. 2013. Alternative Historical Narrative: “Polish Bishops’ Appeal to Their German Colleagues” of 18 November 1965. East European Politics and Societies 27(3): 400–412.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Wojczewski, Thorsten. 2019. Trump, Populism, and American Foreign Policy. Foreign Policy Analysis. https://doi.org/10.1093/fpa/orz021.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Zając, Justyna. 2016. Poland’s Security Policy: The West, Russia, and the Changing International Order. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Żuk, Piotr. 2018. Nation, National Remembrance, and Education—Polish Schools as Factories of Nationalism and Prejudice. Nationalities Papers 46(6): 1046–1062.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Żuk, Piotr, and Paweł Żuk. 2018. Multimodal Analysis of the Nationalist Discourse and Historical Inspirations of the Spectacle of the Populist Right in Poland between 2015 and 2017. Discourse, Context & Media 26: 135–143.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Zwolski, Kamil. 2018. European Security in Integration Theory: Contested Boundaries 2018 edition, 1st ed. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

Download references


David Cadier has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant No. 769886.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to David Cadier.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Cadier, D., Szulecki, K. Populism, historical discourse and foreign policy: the case of Poland’s Law and Justice government. Int Polit (2020). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41311-020-00252-6

Download citation


  • Populism
  • Foreign policy
  • Memory
  • Poland
  • Germany
  • Ukraine