A European Union global strategy for a changing world?
- 338 Downloads
The EU agreed a ‘global strategy on foreign and security policy’ in June 2016, in the midst of unprecedented turmoil within the EU and outside it. This article begins with a discussion of what ‘strategy’ entails, and the challenges of strategising in the EU. It then traces the development of the EU global strategy, focusing on why it was considered to be necessary, and summarises its content. Finally, the article analyses the new strategy in terms of clarity of strategic objectives, specification of resources dedicated to the pursuit of those objectives, and provision for monitoring of progress made in achieving the objectives. The global strategy provides a more ‘realist’ guide for EU foreign and security policy in the near future, but Brexit presents a severe challenge to implementing it in a world in which EU influence is increasingly resisted or contested.
KeywordsBrexit European Union foreign and security policy EU global strategy Strategy
- Amnesty International. 2016. Egypt: Unprecedented Crackdown on NGOs, 23 March. https://www.amnesty.org/en/press-releases/2016/03/egypt-unprecedented-crackdown-on-ngos/.
- Beaumont, Peter. 2016. Israel passes law to force NGOs to reveal foreign funding. The Guardian, 12 July.Google Scholar
- Bendiek, Annegret, and Heinz Kramer. 2010. The EU as a strategic international actor. European Foreign Affairs Review 15 (4): 453–474.Google Scholar
- Bendiek, Annegret. 2016. The global strategy for the EU’s foreign and security policy, SWP Comments 38, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik.Google Scholar
- Bicchi, Federica, Nicola Chelotti, Spyros Economides, and Karen E. Smith. 2015. Response to call for evidence, House of Lords EU External Affairs Sub-Committee ‘The Strategic Review of the EU’s Foreign and Security Policy’, 29 September. http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/eu-external-affairs-subcommittee/strategic-review-of-the-eus-foreign-and-security-policy/written/21950.html.
- Biscop, Sven. 2005. The European security strategy: A global agenda for positive power. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Biscop, Sven. 2012. Raiders of the lost art: Strategy-making in Europe, Egmont Security Policy Brief no. 4. Brussels: Egmont Royal Institute for International Relations.Google Scholar
- Biscop, Sven. 2016. The EU Global Strategy: Realpolitik with European characteristics. Egmont Security Policy Brief no. 75.Google Scholar
- Caprara, Maurizio. 2016. Mogherini: “Dopo lo choc del voto britannico occorre ridare fiducia. Corriere della Sera.Google Scholar
- Chaban, N., O. Elsgtrom, and M. Holland. 2007. The European Union in the eyes of others, Special Issue of European Foreign Affairs Review, 12 (3).Google Scholar
- Council of the European Union. 2016. Implementation plan on security and defence, 14 November, document no. 14392/16.Google Scholar
- Council of Foreign Ministers. 1992. Report to the European Council in Lisbon on the Likely Development of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), Annex to the Conclusions of the Presidency, Lisbon, European Council, EC Bulletin no. 6.Google Scholar
- European Commission. 2013. Action plan for resilience in crisis prone countries 2013–2020, SWD (2013) 227.Google Scholar
- European Commission. 2014. Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, A global actor in search of a strategy: European Union Foreign Policy between bilateralism and multilateralism. European Commission document EUR 26572 EN.Google Scholar
- European Council. 1988. ‘Declaration by the European Council on the International Role of the European Community (The Rhodes Declaration), Rhodes, 3 December 1988’, document no. 2/17. In European Foreign Policy: Key Documents, eds. Christopher Hill and Karen E. Smith, 149–151. London: Routledge, 2000.Google Scholar
- European Council. 2013. Conclusions, 20 December 2013, document EUCO 217/13. http://europa.eu/globalstrategy/en/european-council-conclusions-december-2013.
- European Council. 2015. Conclusions, 25–26 June, document EUCO 22/15 (http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-22-2015-INIT/en/pdf.
- European External Action Service. 2015. The European Union in a changing global environment: A more connected, contested and complex world, 25 June. http://europa.eu/globalstrategy/en/strategic-review-european-union-changing-global-environment.
- European Union. 2003. A secure Europe in a better world: European security strategy. Brussels. Google Scholar
- European Union. 2008. Report on the implementation of the European Security strategy, European Union, ‘Report on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy—Providing Security in a Changing World’, Brussels 11 December, document S407/08.Google Scholar
- European Union. 2016. Shared vision, common action: A stronger Europe. A global strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy. http://europa.eu/globalstrategy/sites/globalstrategy/files/eugs_review_web.pdf.
- Freedman, Lawrence. 2013. Strategy: A history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Hoffmann, Stanley. 1966. Obstinate or obsolete? The fate of the nation state and the case of Western Europe. Daedalus 95 (3): 862–915.Google Scholar
- Human Rights Watch. 2016. Russia: Government vs Rights Groups, 22 September. https://www.hrw.org/russia-government-against-rights-groups-battle-chronicle.
- International Affairs Institute, Polish Institute of International Affair, Elcano Royal Institute, and Swedish Institute of International Affairs. 2013. Towards a European Global Strategy: Securing European Influence in a Changing World. http://www.pism.pl/files/?id_plik=13792.
- Kausch, Kristina. 2016. The EU global strategy in the Shadow of Brexit, Carnegie Europe, 7 July. http://carnegieeurope.eu/strategiceurope/?fa=64034.
- Laatikainen, Katie Verlin. 2010. Multilateral Leadership at the UN after the Lisbon Treaty. European Foreign Affairs Review 15 (4): 475–493.Google Scholar
- Mogherini, Federica. 2016. Remarks made in the video on the EU global strategy, on the EUGS homepage. http://europa.eu/globalstrategy/.
- Pomorska, Karolina, and Sophie Vanhoonacker. 2016. Europe as a global actor: Searching for a new strategic approach. Journal of Common Market Studies Annual Review of the European Union in 2015 54 (1): 204–217.Google Scholar
- Smith, Karen E. 2013. The European Union and the politics of legitimisation at the United Nations. European Foreign Affairs Review 18 (1): 63–80.Google Scholar
- Smith, Karen E. 2014. European Union foreign policy in a changing world, 3rd ed. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
- Tocci, Nathalie. 2015. Towards an EU global strategy. In Towards an EU global strategy: Background, process, references, ed. Antonio Missiroli. Paris: European Union Institute for Security Studies.Google Scholar
- UK. 2010. HM government, ‘A Strong Britain in an Age of Uncertainty: The National Security Strategy’, Cm 7953.Google Scholar
- Wallace, William (forthcoming). European Diplomacy since the Cold War: How ambitious? How inhibited?’ British Journal of Politics and International Relations.Google Scholar
- Wetzel, Anne, and Jan Orbie. 2011. With map and compass on narrow paths and through shallow waters: Discovering the substance of EU democracy promotion. European Foreign Affairs Review 16 (5): 705–725.Google Scholar