Table 9 Upper East regional decomposition of gender differential in rice productivity at selected points of the rice productivity distribution

From: Are Female Rice Farmers Less Productive than Male Farmers? Micro-evidence from Ghana

Panel C: Detailed decomposition
  Explained Structural
Mean 10th 50th 90th Mean 10th 50th 90th
Manager characteristics         
Log of age (years) 0.001 (0.010) 0.002 (0.017) 0.001 (0.011) 0.002 (0.021) − 0.944 (1.714) − 1.092 (3.955) 0.415 (3.045) − 3.402 (2.269)
Log of years of schooling − 0.000 (0.018) − 0.010 (0.028) − 0.040 (0.041) 0.022 (0.023) − 0.005 (0.091) − 0.042 (0.174) − 0.077 (0.177) 0.093 (0.105)
Married 0.019 (0.027) 0.080 (0.069) 0.070 (0.054) 0.037 (0.039) − 0.039 (0.231) − 0.423 (0.474) − 0.224 (0.402) − 0.214 (0.353)
Extension access − 0.006 (0.011) − 0.006 (0.013) − 0.008 (0.016) − 0.015 (0.026) − 0.100* (0.052) − 0.132 (0.102) − 0.109 (0.100) − 0.155** (0.077)
Credit access 0.005 (0.008) 0.007 (0.013) 0.005 (0.013) − 0.006 (0.013) − 0.039 (0.057) − 0.075 (0.112) − 0.076 (0.100) 0.043 (0.089)
FBO membership 0.019 (0.030) − 0.077 (0.063) 0.046 (0.054) 0.076* (0.041) 0.048 (0.050) − 0.036 (0.094) 0.130 (0.091) 0.032 (0.076)
Market information access 0.000 (0.007) 0.000 (0.029) − 0.000 (0.007) 0.000 (0.012) 0.055 (0.213) − 0.084 (0.515) 0.196 (0.353) − 0.116 (0.220)
Plot characteristics     
Log of farm size (ha) 0.008 (0.017) 0.016 (0.034) − 0.006 (0.019) 0.008 (0.018) − 0.178 (0.124) − 0.327 (0.272) 0.121 (0.230) − 0.181 (0.172)
Land ownership 0.003 (0.010) 0.010 (0.021) − 0.011 (0.018) − 0.000 (0.014) 0.017 (0.108) 0.056 (0.209) − 0.299* (0.174) 0.052 (0.155)
Log of Farm distance (km) − 0.018 (0.024) − 0.060 (0.061) − 0.031 (0.042) − 0.007 (0.035) − 0.136 (0.183) − 0.228 (0.374) − 0.227 (0.311) − 0.382 (0.297)
Log of Market distance (km) − 0.009 (0.021) − 0.022 (0.040) − 0.007 (0.045) − 0.012 (0.031) 0.072 (0.198) − 0.198 (0.362) 0.376 (0.407) 0.092 (0.319)
Household characteristics         
Log of household size − 0.043* (0.024) − 0.027 (0.043) − 0.040 (0.033) − 0.047 (0.034) 0.363 (0.358) 0.584 (0.933) 0.348 (0.666) 0.258 (0.604)
Log of household expenditure − 0.071 (0.062) − 0.050 (0.052) − 0.102 (0.089) − 0.017 (0.021) − 0.626** (0.317) − 0.762 (0.763) − 1.019* (0.552) 0.189 (0.404)
Log of total livestock units − 0.005 (0.014) − 0.003 (0.011) 0.001 (0.006) − 0.000 (0.004) − 0.251 (0.296) 0.756 (0.810) − 0.293 (0.522) 0.238 (0.386)
Log of off-farm income (Ghc) − 0.004 (0.009) − 0.008 (0.017) 0.003 (0.009) − 0.011 (0.022) − 0.041 (0.070) − 0.132 (0.144) 0.066 (0.124) − 0.133 (0.115)
Log of asset value (Ghc) − 0.010 (0.013) − 0.043 (0.042) − 0.006 (0.016) − 0.013 (0.016) − 0.967 (1.441) − 4.363 (3.415) − 0.339 (2.506) − 1.929 (2.000)
Labor inputs         
Log of family labor (man-days/ha) 0.014 (0.019) 0.033 (0.041) − 0.008 (0.022) 0.005 (0.013) 0.407 (0.409) − 0.558 (0.828) 1.507* (0.787) − 0.212 (0.505)
Hired labor use − 0.000 (0.002) − 0.003 (0.024) 0.001 (0.006) 0.001 (0.011) 0.005 (0.089) − 0.288 (0.196) 0.091 (0.168) 0.196 (0.120)
Log of hired labor (man-days/ha) − 0.004 (0.012) − 0.000 (0.006) − 0.002 (0.009) − 0.003 (0.011) 0.054 (0.099) 0.346 (0.214) 0.047 (0.194) − 0.052 (0.140)
Non-labor inputs    
Chemical fertilizer use − 0.046 (0.033) 0.001 (0.048) − 0.039 (0.049) − 0.046 (0.036) 0.159 (0.116) 0.266 (0.203) 0.168 (0.197) 0.040 (0.147)
Log of chemical fertilizer (kg/ha) 0.001 (0.003) − 0.002 (0.009) 0.003 (0.011) 0.006 (0.022) 0.035 (0.097) − 0.015 (0.231) − 0.013 (0.181) 0.271* (0.154)
Herbicide use 0.004 (0.013) 0.012 (0.045) 0.003 (0.010) − 0.005 (0.016) 0.094 (0.101) 0.268 (0.240) 0.160 (0.181) − 0.353** (0.143)
Log of herbicide (l/ha) − 0.002 (0.008) − 0.002 (0.012) − 0.000 (0.004) 0.001 (0.008) 0.063 (0.103) − 0.064 (0.220) 0.009 (0.169) 0.095 (0.159)
Improved seed use 0.001 (0.008) 0.001 (0.012) 0.002 (0.015) 0.002 (0.016) − 0.019 (0.038) − 0.046 (0.072) − 0.032 (0.063) − 0.011 (0.063)
Log of improved seed (kg/ha) 0.000 (0.009) − 0.001 (0.037) 0.001 (0.031) 0.001 (0.036) − 0.240 (0.265) 0.806 (0.624) − 0.672 (0.519) − 0.965** (0.437)
Machinery use 0.002 (0.006) − 0.016 (0.026) 0.014 (0.023) − 0.005 (0.010) 0.117 (0.134) − 0.260 (0.295) 0.468* (0.246) − 0.072 (0.192)
Row planting 0.006 (0.011) − 0.002 (0.018) 0.003 (0.013) 0.027 (0.034) − 0.021 (0.119) 0.151 (0.271) − 0.087 (0.197) − 0.152 (0.169)
Production shocks
Pest 0.013 (0.025) 0.080 (0.055) 0.028 (0.051) − 0.028 (0.034) 0.079 (0.078) 0.267* (0.155) 0.112 (0.150) 0.021 (0.109)
Disease − 0.057* (0.032) − 0.056 (0.052) − 0.079 (0.055) 0.016 (0.030) 0.173 (0.102) 0.270 (0.223) 0.181 (0.195) 0.024 (0.140)
Drought − 0.028 (0.026) 0.008 (0.046) − 0.087 (0.061) − 0.035 (0.032) 0.054* (0.127) 0.067 (0.272) 0.131 (0.237) 0.024 (0.162)
  1. ***, **, and * denote significance level of 1%, 5%, and 10%; Standard errors are in parenthesis