Table 8 Northern regional decomposition of gender differential in rice productivity at selected points of the rice productivity distribution

From: Are Female Rice Farmers Less Productive than Male Farmers? Micro-evidence from Ghana

Panel C: Detailed decomposition
  Explained Structural
Mean 10th 50th 90th Mean 10th 50th 90th
Manager characteristics   
Log of age (years) 0.016 (0.014) 0.005 (0.015) 0.023 (0.020) 0.003 (0.013) 1.788 (1.227) 1.520 (1.714) 2.805* (1.630) − 0.123 (1.615)
Log of years of schooling − 0.001 (0.005) 0.009 (0.014) − 0.002 (0.007) − 0.004 (0.007) 0.002 (0.032) − 0.050 (0.055) − 0.022 (0.037) 0.038 (0.032)
Married − 0.008 (0.019) − 0.009 (0.021) − 0.037 (0.029) − 0.001 (0.025) 0.590 (0.377) 1.244 (0.831) 0.276 (0.368) 0.134 (0.263)
Extension access − 0.007 (0.011) − 0.000 (0.011) − 0.004 (0.011) − 0.007 (0.011) 0.006 (0.116) 0.190 (0.173) 0.039 (0.150) − 0.096 (0.116)
Credit access − 0.003 (0.007) − 0.002 (0.007) − 0.002 (0.006) − 0.001 (0.004) 0.026 (0.043) 0.039 (0.061) − 0.002 (0.056) 0.018 (0.049)
FBO membership − 0.016 (0.018) − 0.016 (0.019) − 0.013 (0.017) − 0.011 (0.015) − 0.077 (0.066) − 0.074 (0.087) 0.010 (0.091) − 0.032 (0.085)
Market information access − 0.006 (0.023) − 0.004 (0.017) − 0.002 (0.008) 0.001 (0.003) − 0.400 (0.039) − 0.858 (0.684) − 0.197 (0.387) 0.013 (0.291)
Plot characteristics      
Log of farm size (ha) 0.000 (0.002) 0.001 (0.022) − 0.000 (0.004) − 0.000 (0.001) 0.039 (0.061) − 0.122 (0.088) 0.101 (0.077) 0.032 (0.075)
Land ownership − 0.000 (0.003) 0.005 (0.012) − 0.002 (0.004) − 0.001 (0.004) − 0.002 (0.048) − 0.050 (0.087) − 0.024 (0.062) − 0.003 (0.065)
Log of Farm distance (km) − 0.007 (0.010) − 0.020 (0.022) − 0.007 (0.013) − 0.004 (0.010) 0.030 (0.303) − 0.360 (0.484) 0.172 (0.423) 0.290 (0.398)
Log of Market distance(km) − 0.001 (0.004) − 0.005 (0.010) 0.003 (0.007) − 0.002 (0.005) 0.087 (0.198) − 0.255 (0.235) 0.351 (0.257) − 0.000 (0.224)
Household characteristics       
Log of household size − 0.004 (0.008) − 0.015 (0.028) − 0.001 (0.006) − 0.005 (0.010) 0.166 (0.355) 0.786 (0.643) 0.220 (0.401) 0.398 (0.319)
Log of household expenditure 0.005 (0.016) 0.008 (0.025) 0.001 (0.005) 0.002 (0.007) − 0.378 (0.438) − 0.392 (0.645) 0.093 (0.485) − 0.070 (0.463)
Log of total livestock units 0.008 (0.013) 0.010 (0.018) − 0.001 (0.016) − 0.009 (0.019) 0.365 (0.357) − 0.011 (0.479) 0.037 (0.392) 0.104 (0.466)
Log of off-farm income (Ghc) − 0.001 (0.004) 0.005 (0.009) − 0.002 (0.006) − 0.004 (0.009) 0.004 (0.029) − 0.035 (0.040) 0.020 (0.040) 0.010 (0.036)
Log of asset value (Ghc) − 0.000 (0.002) 0.002 (0.006) − 0.001 (0.004) 0.002 (0.007) 2.400** (1.116) 0.523 (1.981) 1.577 (1.504) 2.272 (1.580)
Labor inputs         
Log of family labor (man-days/ha) − 0.015 (0.020) − 0.023 (0.028) − 0.001 (0.017) − 0.013 (0.020) 0.895 (0.626) 0.380 (0.858) 0.126 (0.580) 0.662 (0.636)
Hired labor use − 0.008 (0.012) − 0.027 (0.026) − 0.003 (0.014) − 0.012 (0.014) 0.048 (0.058) 0.094 (0.107) 0.025 (0.074) 0.076 (0.071)
Log of hired labor (man-days/ha) 0.001 (0.006) − 0.001 (0.012) 0.001 (0.011) 0.001 (0.005) 0.008 (0.054) 0.061 (0.076) − 0.034 (0.070) − 0.019 (0.075)
Non-labor inputs         
Chemical fertilizer use − 0.003 (0.018) − 0.007 (0.040) − 0.002 (0.011) − 0.001 (0.004) 0.149 (0.246) 0.664 (0.638) − 0.175 (0.239) − 0.146 (0.213)
Log of chemical fertilizer (kg/ha) 0.001 (0.011) 0.015 (0.021) − 0.007 (0.016) − 0.017 (0.019) − 0.007 (0.081) − 0.126 (0.126) 0.064 (0.104) 0.108 (0.100)
Herbicide use 0.033 (0.022) 0.045 (0.030) 0.022 (0.024) 0.003 (0.016) 0.294* (0.175) 0.451** (0.229) 0.194 (0.231) 0.006 (0.187)
Log of herbicide (l/ha) 0.004 (0.008) − 0.003 (0.011) − 0.002 (0.009) 0.001 (0.007) − 0.025 (0.073) 0.069 (0.112) 0.058 (0.096) 0.020 (0.078)
Improved seed use 0.006 (0.010) − 0.007 (0.012) 0.008 (0.013) 0.003 (0.007) − 0.024 (0.027) 0.028 (0.042) − 0.036 (0.034) − 0.007 (0.031)
Log of improved seed (kg/ha) 0.003 (0.010) − 0.020 (0.024) 0.012 (0.018) 0.027 (0.028) − 0.226 (0.234) 0.311 (0.386) − 0.339 (0.313) − 0.580* (0.314)
Machinery use − 0.000 (0.004) 0.007 (0.018) − 0.004 (0.010) − 0.001 (0.005) 0.084 (0.111) − 0.101 (0.184) 0.038 (0.129) − 0.005 (0.141)
Row planting 0.002 (0.008) − 0.002 (0.009) 0.006 (0.013) 0.005 (0.009) 0.016 (0.091) − 0.034 (0.131) 0.052 (0.118) 0.094 (0.091)
Production shocks         
Pest 0.044 (0.030) 0.023 (0.031) 0.034 (0.039) 0.069* (0.041) 0.088** (0.039) − 0.003 (0.044) 0.043 (0.051) 0.154** (0.057)
Disease 0.001 (0.004) 0.002 (0.006) − 0.002 (0.008) − 0.003 (0.011) − 0.000 (0.110) − 0.018 (0.168) − 0.111 (0.167) − 0.169 (0.130)
Drought 0.003 (0.010) 0.026 (0.032) − 0.008 (0.012) − 0.010 (0.015) − 0.160 (0.307) − 0.337 (0.426) 0.085 (0.211) 0.320 (0.307)
  1. ***, **, and * denote significance level of 1%, 5%, and 10%; Standard errors are in parenthesis