Table 7 Detailed regional oaxaca decomposition of the gender differential in rice productivity

From: Are Female Rice Farmers Less Productive than Male Farmers? Micro-evidence from Ghana

Panel C: Detailed decomposition Explained Structural Explained Structural Explained Structural
Manager characteristics       
Log of age (years) 0.004
(0.005)
1.800*
(1.045)
0.001
(0.006)
− 0.943
(1.489)
0.004
(0.007)
− 2.754
(2.147)
Log of years of schooling − 0.002
(0.003)
0.002
(0.023)
0.001
(0.008)
− 0.007
(0.092)
− 0.003
(0.005)
− 0.038
(0.052)
Married 0.007
(0.016)
0.574*
(0.331)
0.001
(0.023)
− 0.022
(0.191)
0.014
(0.014)
0.111
(0.162)
Extension access − 0.008
(0.011)
0.007
(0.102)
0.002
(0.004)
− 0.108**
(0.049)
0.018
(0.014)
− 0.052
(0.049)
Credit access − 0.001
(0.002)
0.023
(0.034)
− 0.001
(0.004)
− 0.033
(0.044)
0.000
(0.005)
0.030
(0.046)
FBO membership − 0.007
(0.007)
− 0.087
(0.062)
0.006
(0.015)
0.061
(0.064)
0.034*
(0.018)
0.211*
(0.109)
Market information access − 0.004
(0.017)
− 0.402
(0.409)
0.000
(0.009)
0.055
(0.184)
− 0.087**
(0.039)
− 0.034
(0.092)
Plot characteristics       
Log of farm size (ha) 0.000
(0.006)
0.039
(0.051)
0.000
(0.005)
− 0.170*
(0.101)
− 0.031
(0.024)
0.244
(0.175)
Land ownership − 0.001
(0.002)
− 0.002
(0.039)
0.000
(0.004)
0.019
(0.100)
− 0.005
(0.020)
0.076
(0.103)
Log of Farm distance(km) − 0.008
(0.008)
0.031
(0.260)
− 0.009
(0.015)
− 0.145
(0.177)
− 0.002
(0.006)
0.151
(0.202)
Log of Market distance(km) − 0.003
(0.005)
0.088
(0.168)
− 0.014
(0.013)
0.077
(0.189)
− 0.008
(0.010)
− 0.244
(0.228)
Household characteristics       
Log household size − 0.002
(0.003)
0.164
(0.293)
− 0.030*
(0.015)
0.350
(0.298)
0.010
(0.013)
0.089
(0.432)
Log of household expenditure 0.003
(0.009)
− 0.376
(0.366)
− 0.048
(0.042)
− 0.649**
(0.284)
0.036
(0.031)
0.619
(0.398)
Log of total livestock units − 0.002
(0.009)
0.375
(0.317)
− 0.004
(0.011)
− 0.251
(0.259)
0.004
(0.009)
− 0.135
(0.317)
Log of off-farm income (Ghc) 0.001
(0.002)
0.003
(0.022)
− 0.002
(0.004)
− 0.044
(0.064)
− 0.001
(0.003)
− 0.101
(0.080)
Log of asset value (Ghc) − 0.003
(0.010)
2.403**
(0.936)
− 0.004
(0.006)
− 0.973
(1.258)
0.000
(0.002)
1.111
(1.429)
Labor inputs
Log of family labor (man-days/ha) 0.005
(0.008)
0.875*
(0.510)
0.018
(0.021)
0.404
(0.349)
− 0.006
(0.010)
− 0.103
(0.577)
Hired labor use − 0.001
(0.004)
0.041
(0.041)
− 0.000
(0.003)
0.005
(0.078)
0.001
(0.006)
− 0.042
(0.085)
Log of hired labor (man-days/ha) 0.000
(0.003)
0.009
(0.045)
− 0.004
(0.012)
0.054
(0.088)
− 0.022
(0.017)
− 0.154*
(0.092)
Non-labor inputs       
Chemical fertilizer use − 0.004
(0.021)
0.150 (0.212) − 0.072** (0.035) 0.185 (0.119) − 0.006
(0.010)
− 0.038
(0.065)
Log of chemical fertilizer (kg/ha) 0.005
(0.006)
− 0.011
(0.060)
0.001
(0.003)
0.035
(0.087)
− 0.009
(0.010)
0.181
(0.148)
Herbicide use 0.009
(0.007)
0.318**
(0.157)
0.002
(0.009)
0.095
(0.089)
0.024
(0.015)
− 0.061
(0.109)
Log of herbicide (l/ha) 0.002
(0.003)
− 0.022
(0.056)
− 0.001
(0.003)
0.061
(0.087)
0.011
(0.014)
0.148
(0.152)
Improved seed use 0.002
(0.004)
− 0.020
(0.020)
0.001
(0.006)
− 0.019
(0.032)
0.002
(0.004)
− 0.053
(0.075)
Log of improved seed (kg/ha) − 0.007
(0.008)
− 0.216
(0.191)
0.000
(0.000)
− 0.240
(0.233)
0.001
(0.006)
− 1.067**
(0.446)
Machinery use 0.001
(0.003)
0.083
(0.090)
− 0.003
(0.006)
0.122
(0.120)
− 0.005
(0.008)
0.018
(0.174)
Row planting 0.000
(0.004)
0.018
(0.083)
0.003
(0.006)
− 0.018
(0.096)
− 0.001
(0.004)
0.061
(0.079)
Production shocks       
Pest − 0.012
(0.014)
0.143**
(0.053)
− 0.013
(0.012)
0.105
(0.087)
− 0.021
(0.013)
0.034
(0.064)
Disease 0.002
(0.004)
− 0.000
(0.093)
− 0.027
(0.017)
0.143**
(0.071)
0.004
(0.006)
− 0.014
(0.109)
Drought − 0.002
(0.005)
− 0.155
(0.252)
− 0.023
(0.016)
0.049
(0.093)
0.017
(0.012)
− 0.103
(0.114)
  1. ***, **, and * denote significance level of 1%, 5%, and 10%; Standard errors are in parenthesis