Table 10 Upper West regional decomposition of gender differential in rice productivity at selected points of the rice productivity distribution

From: Are Female Rice Farmers Less Productive than Male Farmers? Micro-evidence from Ghana

Panel C: Detailed decomposition
  Explained Structural
Mean 10th 50th 90th Mean 10th 50th 90th
Manager characteristics     
Log of age (years) 0.009 (0.017) 0.014 (0.024) 0.011 (0.022) − 0.005 (0.019) − 2.759 (2.557) − 4.649 (3.637) − 2.685 (3.711) − 2.489 (6.346)
Log of years of schooling − 0.007 (0.012) 0.015 (0.018) − 0.010 (0.018) − 0.028 (0.037) − 0.033 (0.053) − 0.013 (0.086) 0.001 (0.084) − 0.113 (0.142)
Married 0.010 (0.023) 0.058 (0.040) 0.002 (0.035) − 0.066 (0.056) 0.116 (0.204) − 0.260 (0.395) 0.065 (0.298) 0.786* (0.428)
Extension access 0.009 (0.021) − 0.015 (0.021) 0.042 (0.036) 0.020 (0.052) − 0.043 (0.043) − 0.109* (0.063) 0.042 (0.050) − 0.011 (0.101)
Credit access − 0.011 (0.015) − 0.017 (0.020) − 0.001 (0.019) 0.032 (0.039) 0.041 (0.065) 0.032 (0.093) 0.027 (0.093) − 0.125 (0.149)
FBO membership 0.072* (0.039) 0.041 (0.049) 0.146 (0.074) − 0.009 (0.064) 0.173* (0.103) 0.169 (0.185) 0.398** (0.174) 0.105 (0.227)
Market information access − 0.094 (0.051) − 0.013 (0.038) − 0.098 (0.069) − 0.178 (0.118) − 0.028 (0.080) 0.168 (0.110) − 0.008 (0.132) − 0.106 (0.236)
Plot characteristics   
Log of farm size (ha) − 0.064 (0.047) 0.101 (0.068) 0.015 (0.074) − 0.175 (0.134) 0.277 (0.239) − 0.272 (0.443) − 0.043 (0.404) 0.889 (0.647)
Land ownership − 0.007 (0.028) − 0.001 (0.006) − 0.011 (0.044) − 0.004 (0.017) 0.078 (0.124) − 0.369** (0.158) 0.190 (0.179) 0.230 (0.268)
Log of Farm distance(km) 0.005 (0.012) − 0.017 (0.025) − 0.030 (0.039) 0.027 (0.041) 0.144 (0.227) − 0.084 (0.360) − 0.363 (0.330) 0.260 (0.554)
Log of Market distance(km) − 0.030 (0.028) − 0.049 (0.038) − 0.027 (0.041) − 0.002 (0.054) − 0.222 (0.250) − 0.313 (0.344) − 0.195 (0.408) − 0.227 (0.606)
Household characteristics      
Log of household size 0.004 (0.021) − 0.032 (0.031) − 0.006 (0.038) 0.064 (0.060) 0.095 (0.523) 0.555 (0.759) 0.590 (0.880) − 1.015 (1.299)
Log of household expenditure 0.056 (0.050) − 0.009 (0.020) 0.068 (0.061) 0.141 (0.123) 0.598 (0.455) − 0.313 (0.549) 0.636 (0.597) 1.290 (1.049)
Log of total livestock units 0.011 (0.019) 0.006 (0.015) 0.043 (0.034) 0.013 (0.038) − 0.142 (0.386) − 0.228 (0.462) − 0.996* (0.528) 0.048 (0.861)
Log of off-farm income (Ghc) − 0.007 (0.013) − 0.009 (0.016) − 0.005 (0.015) − 0.010 (0.024) − 0.095 (0.089) − 0.014 (0.143) − 0.209 (0.153) − 0.135 (0.228)
Log of asset value (Ghc) − 0.000 (0.002) − 0.003 (0.028) − 0.000 (0.003) 0.001 (0.011) 1.111 (1.684) 3.923 (2.655) − 0.459 (2.993) 3.191 (4.150)
Labor inputs     
Log of family labor (man-days/ha) − 0.007 (0.012) 0.005 (0.010) − 0.015 (0.024) 0.001 (0.020) − 0.102 (0.661) 0.195 (0.998) − 0.629 (1.018) 1.294 (1.773)
Hired labor use 0.000 (0.002) 0.001 (0.004) − 0.001 (0.007) − 0.004 (0.017) − 0.042 (0.098) 0.073 (0.137) − 0.107 (0.165) − 0.113 (0.215)
Log of hired labor (man-days/ha) − 0.048 (0.037) − 0.051 (0.041) − 0.069 (0.055) − 0.073 (0.067) − 0.129 (0.091) − 0.236* (0.135) − 0.218 (0.142) − 0.091 (0.210)
Non-labor inputs    
Chemical fertilizer use − 0.014 (0.018) 0.004 (0.027) − 0.040 (0.036) − 0.036 (0.047) − 0.030 (0.062) − 0.063 (0.127) − 0.116 (0.098) − 0.014 (0.149)
Log of chemical fertilizer (kg/ha) − 0.027 (0.025) − 0.021 (0.030) − 0.062 (0.051) 0.019 (0.033) 0.199 (0.188) 0.010 (0.333) 0.527* (0.317) − 0.329 (0.382)
Herbicide use 0.017 (0.022) − 0.015 (0.028) 0.024 (0.032) 0.024 (0.061) − 0.054 (0.112) − 0.069 (0.172) − 0.047 (0.160) − 0.112 (0.326)
Log of herbicide (l/ha) − 0.008 (0.025) 0.019 (0.041) − 0.051 (0.045) 0.079 (0.080) 0.166 (0.200) 0.054 (0.357) 0.442 (0.297) − 0.356 (0.552)
Improved seed use − 0.001 (0.006) 0.001 (0.007) − 0.001 (0.008) 0.003 (0.014) − 0.050 (0.083) − 0.013 (0.134) − 0.099 (0.127) 0.065 (0.198)
Log of improved seed (kg/ha) 0.027 (0.034) 0.005 (0.020) 0.034 (0.045) − 0.023 (0.044) − 1.093** (0.549) − 0.571 (0.733) − 1.406 (0.856) 0.292 (1.270)
Machinery use − 0.004 (0.009) − 0.010 (0.018) − 0.002 (0.012) − 0.001 (0.019) 0.016 (0.198) − 0.103 (0.376) 0.067 (0.291) 0.019 (0.483)
Row planting − 0.002 (0.009) − 0.004 (0.014) − 0.002 (0.009) − 0.006 (0.024) 0.062 (0.096) 0.166 (0.131) − 0.006 (0.166) 0.172 (0.235)
Production shocks       
Pest − 0.005 (0.020) 0.005 (0.024) 0.006 (0.034) − 0.052 (0.056) 0.018 (0.059) 0.084 (0.087) 0.052 (0.092) − 0.138 (0.146)
Disease 0.005 (0.011) − 0.010 (0.016) − 0.005 (0.015) 0.031 (0.042) − 0.015 (0.136) 0.057 (0.219) 0.146 (0.214) − 0.276 (0.322)
Drought 0.012 (0.013) 0.020 (0.023) − 0.016 (0.021) 0.032 (0.034) − 0.099 (0.123) − 0.158 (0.217) − 0.427** (0.210) 0.136 (0.320)
  1. ***, **, and * denote significance level of 1%, 5%, and 10%; Standard errors are in parenthesis