Advertisement

Acta Politica

, Volume 53, Issue 2, pp 283–304 | Cite as

Conventional and unconventional political participation in times of financial crisis in the Netherlands, 2002–2012

  • Rik Linssen
  • Peer Scheepers
  • Manfred te Grotenhuis
  • Hans Schmeets
Article

Abstract

In this contribution, we investigate the extent to which the recent financial crisis has affected levels of political participation in general and more particularly within privileged and underprivileged societal groups in the Netherlands. We derive competing and complementary theoretical propositions about the possible effects of the economic downturn on conventional and unconventional modes of political participation. Economic decline might mobilize people to voice their concerns in the political arena, especially via unconventional modes of political participation such as demonstrating. As privileged societal groups are more likely to participate in politics, economic decline may widen the initial differences between privileged and underprivileged societal groups in their level of political participation. We use the Dutch Parliamentary Election Studies collected before (2002–2006), at the onset of the Eurocrisis (2006–2010) and after prolonged periods of recession (2008–2012) to empirically assess these competing claims. Our results show a slight decrease in conventional modes of political participation and a slight increase in unconventional modes of political participation during the recent financial and economic crisis. We do not find that the relationship between the economic crisis and political participation changes significantly differently for privileged and underprivileged groups in the Netherlands.

Keywords

Political participation Economic crisis Protesting The Netherlands 

References

  1. Aarts, K., H. van der Kolk, and M. Rosema. 2007. Een verdeeld electoraat? Houten: Spectrum.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, C.J. 2007. The end of economic voting? Contingency dilemmas and the limits of democratic accountability. Annual Review of Political Science 10: 271–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnes, S.H., and M. Kaase. 1979. Political action: Mass participation in five western democracies. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  4. Brady, H.E., S. Verba, and K.L. Schlozman. 1995. Beyond ses: A resource model of political participation. American Political Science Review 89 (2): 271–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. CBS. 2013. Sustained economic contraction. Statistics Netherlands press release, PB13-011, 14 February 2013. The Hague/Heerlen: Statistics Netherlands.Google Scholar
  6. CBS. 2014a. Labour force; main figures by sex and other personal characteristics. CBS Statline. Retrieved 2 April, 2014 from: http://statline.cbs.nl/.
  7. CBS. 2014b. Financieel risico hypotheekschuld; eigenwoningbezitters (Financial risk mortgage debt; homeowners). CBS Statline. http://statline.cbs.nl/. Accessed 2 April 2014.
  8. CBS. 2014c. Government finance statistics; key figures. CBS Statline. http://statline.cbs.nl/. Accessed 2 April 2014.
  9. CBS. 2014d. Nationale problemen volgens stemgerechtigden (National problems according to the electorate). CBS Statline. http://statline.cbs.nl/. Accessed 3 April 2014.
  10. CBS. 2014e. Sociale contacten en maatschappelijke participatie (Social contact and societal participation). http://statline.cbs.nl/. Accessed 6 May 2014.
  11. Dalton, R.J. 2008. Citizenship norms and the expansion of political participation. Political Studies 56 (1): 76–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davies, J.C. 1962. Toward a theory of revolution. American Sociological Review 27 (1): 5–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Desposato, S., and B. Norrander. 2009. The gender gap in latin america: contextual and individual influences on gender and political participation. British Journal of Political Science 39 (1): 141–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DPES. 2006. Dutch parliamentary election surveys 2006. Amsterdam: DANS KNAW.Google Scholar
  15. DPES. 2010. Dutch parliamentary election studies 2010. Amsterdam: DANS KNAW.Google Scholar
  16. DPES. 2012. Dutch parliamentary election studies 2012. Amsterdam: DANS/KNAW.Google Scholar
  17. Gesthuizen, M., P. Scheepers, W. Van Der Veld, and B. Völker. 2013. Structural aspects of social capital: Tests for cross-national equivalence in europe. Quality & Quantity 47 (2): 909–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hackert, M., R. Linssen, and H. Schmeets. 2012. Economische en culturele dreiging: Wie ervaart dreiging en wie niet? [Economic and cultural threat: Who feels threatened and who doesn’t?]. Sociaal-economische trends 2012 (4): 45–52.Google Scholar
  19. Jenkins, J.C. 1983. Resource mobilization theory and the study of social movements. Annual Review of Sociology 9 (1983): 527–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Klandermans, B., J. Van der Toorn, and J. Van Stekelenburg. 2008. Embeddedness and identity: How immigrants turn grievances into action. American Sociological Review 73 (6): 992–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lamprianou, I. 2013. Contemporary political participation research: A critical assessment. In Democracy in transition, ed. K. Demetriou, 21–42. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lassen, D.D., and S. Serritzlew. 2011. Jurisdiction size and local democracy: Evidence on internal political efficacy from large-scale municipal reform. American Political Science Review 105 (2): 238–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lewis-Beck, M.S., and M. Stegmaier. 2000. Economic determinants of electoral outcomes. Annual Review of Political Science 3 (1): 183–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Linssen, R., and H. Schmeets. 2010. Participatie en vertrouwen in europa (Participation and trust in europe). In Sociale samenhang: Participatie, vertrouwen en integratie (Social cohesion: Participation, trust, and integration), ed. H. Schmeets, 135–151. The Hague/Heerlen: Statistics Netherlands.Google Scholar
  25. Millbrath, L. 1965. Political participation: How and why do people get involved in politics?. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  26. Mokken, R.J. 1971. A theory and procedure of scale analysis with applications in political research. The Hague: Mouton & Co.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Morrell, M.E. 2003. Survey and experimental evidence for a reliable and valid measure of internal political efficacy. Public Opinion Quarterly 67 (4): 589–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Muñoz, J., G. Rico and E. Anduiza. 2013. Austerity policies and political involvement. Evidence from a panel survey in spain (2010-11) Working paper Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona.Google Scholar
  29. Norris, P. 2011. Democratic deficit: Critical citizens revisited. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Norris, P., S. Walgrave, and P. Van Aelst. 2005. Who demonstrates? Antistate rebels, conventional participants or everyone? Comparative Politics 37 (2): 189–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ponticelli, J. and H.A. Voth. 2011. Austerity and anarchy: Budget cuts and social unrest in europe, 1919-2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1899287. Accessed 26 July 2013.
  32. Radcliff, B. 1992. The welfare state, turnout, and the economy: A comparative analysis. American Political Science Review 86 (2): 444–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rosenstone, S.J. 1982. Economic adversity and voter turnout. American Journal of Political Science 26: 26–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schmeets, H. 2011. Verkiezingen: Participatie, vertrouwen en integratie (Elections: Participation, trust, and integration). The Hague/Heerlen: Statistics Netherlands.Google Scholar
  35. Schmeets, H. and W. Gielen. 2015. Econische en Culturele dreiging in Nederland (Econonomic and cultural threat in the Netherlands) In Nationaal Kiezersonderzoek 2006-2012 (Dutch Parliamentary Election Sudy 2006-2012) ed. Schmeets, H, 62-76. The Hague/Heerlen: Statistics Netherlands.Google Scholar
  36. Schmeets, H. and K. Van der Houwen. 2010. Politieke betrokkenheid van allochtonen (Political engagement of minorities), ed Schmeets, H, 186-196. The Hague/Heerlen: Statistics Netherlands.Google Scholar
  37. Sijtsma, K., and W. Molenaar. 2002. Introduction to nonparametric item response theory. Thousand Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Thomassen, J.J. 1990. Economic crisis, dissatisfaction, and protest. In Continuities in political action: A longitudinal study of political orientations in three western democracies, eds. M.K. Jennings, J.W. Van Deth, S.H. Barnes, D. Fuchs, F.J. Heunks, R.F. Inglehart, and J.J. Thomassen, 103–134. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  39. Van der Meer, T. 2009. States of freely associating citizens: Comparative studies into the impact of state institutions on social, civic and political participation. Nijmegen: Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen ICS dissertation.Google Scholar
  40. Van Schuur, W. 2003. Mokken scale analysis: Between the guttman scale and parametric item-response theory. Political Analysis 11 (2): 139–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Verba, S., N. Nie, and J. Kim. 1978. Participation and political equality: A seven-nation comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Wilson, J. 1973. Introduction to social movements. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  43. Zukin, C. 2006. A new engagement: Political participation, civic life, and the changing american citizen. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rik Linssen
    • 1
  • Peer Scheepers
    • 2
  • Manfred te Grotenhuis
    • 2
  • Hans Schmeets
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceMaastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of SociologyRadboud UniversityNijmegenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Division of Social and Spatial StatisticsStatistics NetherlandsHeerlenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations