The purpose of this paper is to apply a brand personality model into a country level, by adjusting Aaker’s classical dimensions (J Mark Res 34(3):347–356, 1997) while methodologically aligning into a country image in lenses of a country branding perspective. Using Brazil as a unit of analysis, fourteen international experts were in-depth and individual face-to-face interviewed for this exploratory research. By doing so, a country brand personality (CBP) framework is composed of five dimensions: sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and malignancy. For instance, the core aspects of four positive dimensions (sincerity, excitement, sophistication, and competence) attract tourists, professionals, business, and investments—by adding value to the country brand. In contrast, the negative aspects defined as the malignancy dimension subtract value to the country brand. Overall, the results indicate that the top dimensions are excitement and sincerity followed by more favourable associations with Brazil than ones. By fine-tuning Aaker’s (1997) brand personality dimensions into a country image setting, this study contributes to the state-of-art through the hindsight on the theoretical linkage between brand personality and CBP. While brand personality studies are well documented in the marketing literature, application of branding theories to place brands—to a country brand—is relatively new.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Aaker, D.A. 1991. Managing Brand Equity. Capitalizing on the Value of a Brand Name. New York: The Free Press.
Aaker, J.L. 1997. Dimensions of Brand Personality. Journal of Marketing Research 34 (3): 347–356.
Aaker, J., and S. Fournier. 1995. A Brand as a Character, a Partner and a Person: Three Perspectives on the Question of Brand Personality. In Advances in Consumer Research, vol. 22, ed. Frank R. Kardes and Mita Sujan, 391–395. Provo: Association for Consumer Research.
Anholt, S. 2007. Competitive Identity: The New Brand Management for Nations, Cities, and Regions. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Austin, J.R., A.J. Siguaw, and A.S. Mattila. 2003. A Re-examination of the Generalizability of the Aaker Brand Personality Measurement Framework. Journal of Strategic Marketing 11 (2): 77–92.
Azoulay, A., and J.N. Kapferer. 2003. Do Brand Personality Scales Really Measure Brand Personality? Journal of Brand Management 11: 143–155.
BBC News. 2018. How is it possible to transform a country into a brand? (in Brazilian Portuguese). https://www.bbc.com/portuguese/internacional-45347994.
Beni, M.C. 2006. Politics and Planning of Tourism in Brazil (in Brazilian Portuguese). São Paulo: Aleph.
Biel, A. 1993. Converting Image into Equity. In Advertising and Building Strong Brands, eds. D.A. Aaker, and A. Biel. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.
Biel, A. 1997. Discovering Brand Magic: The Hardness of the Softer Side of Branding. International Journal of Advertising 16 (3): 199–210.
Bignami, R. 2002. Brazil’s Image in Tourism (in Brazilian Portuguese). São Paulo: Aleph.
Buarque, D. (2018) Brasil has a Better International Image Abroad than it Deserves, Says Simon Anholt (in Brazilian Portuguese). https://brasilianismo.blogosfera.uol.com.br/2016/05/31/brasil-tem-imagem-internacional-melhor-do-que-merece-diz-simon-anholt/.
Davies, G., J.I. Rojas-Méndez, S. Whelan, M. Mete, and T. Loo. 2018. Brand Personality: Theory and Dimensionality. Journal of Product & Brand Management 27 (2): 115–127.
Dinnie, K. 2016. Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice, 2nd ed. Oxon: Routledge.
Echeverri, L., E. ter Horst, G. Molina, and Z. Mohamad. 2019. Nation Branding: Unveiling Factors that Affect the Image of Colombia from a Foreign Perspective. Tourism Planning & Development 16 (1): 1–21.
EMBRATUR. 2009. Brazil Brand Strengths Its Visual Identity Abroad (in Brazilian Portuguese). http://www.turismo.gov.br/ultimas-noticias/3255-marca-brasil-fortalece-a-identidade-visual-do-pais-no-exterior.html.
EMBRATUR. 2019. Institutional Portal (in Brazilian Portuguese). http://www.embratur.gov.br/piembratur-new/opencms/index.html.
Flick, U. 2014. An Introduction to Qualitative Research, 5th ed. London: SAGE.
Ekinci, Y., and S. Hosany. 2006. Destination Personality: An Application of Brand Personality to Tourism Destinations. Journal of Travel Research 45 (2): 127–139.
Giraldi, J.D.M.E., I.D.M.E. Giraldi, and A.A. Scaduto. 2011. Brazil’s Image as a Social Representation Process. African Journal of Business Management 5 (22): 8821–8831.
Govers, R. 2017. With Internal Problems, Brazil Forgot the World, Says Image Researcher (in Brazilian Portuguese). https://brasilianismo.blogosfera.uol.com.br/2017/12/17/com-problemas-internos-brasil-esqueceu-do-mundo-diz-pesquisador-de-imagem/.
Govers, R., and F. Go. 2009. Place Branding: Glocal, Virtual and Physical Identities, Constructed, Imagined and Experienced. London: Palgrave MacMillan.
Hair, J., M. Wolfinbarger, D.J. Ortinau, and R.P. Bush. 2010. Essentials of Marketing Research. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Hanna, S., and Rowley, J. 2017. Do places have a personality? A Perspective from Place Branding (chapter 61). In IGI Global, Advertising and Branding: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications, 1316–1334.
Hosany, S., Y. Ekinci, and M. Uysal. 2006. Destination Image and Destination Personality: An Application of Brand Theories to Tourism Places. Journal of Business Research 59 (5): 638–642.
Kapferer, J.N. 1992. Strategic Brand Management: New Approaches to Creating and Evaluating Brand Equity. London: Kogan Page.
Kapferer, J.N. 2004. The New Strategic Brand Management: Creating and Sustaining Brand Equity Long Term, 3rd ed. London: Kogan Page.
Kaplan, M.D., O. Yurt, B. Guneri, and K. Kurtulus. 2010. Branding Places: Applying Brand Personality Concept to Cities. European Journal of Marketing 44 (9/10): 1286–1304.
Keller, K.L. 1993. Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Consumer-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing 57 (1): 1–22.
Keller, K.L., and K. Richey. 2017. The importance of corporate brand personality traits to a successful 21st century business. In Advances in Corporate Branding (Journal of Brand Management: Advanced Collections), ed. J.M.T. Balmer, S.M. Powell, J. Kernstock, and T.O. Brexendorf. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kim, Y.K., S.W. Shim, and K. Dinnie. 2013. The Dimensions of Nation Brand Personality: A Study of Nine Countries. Corporate Reputation Review 16: 34–47.
Kotler, P., D. Haider, and I. Rein. 1993. Marketing Places: Attracting Investment, Industry, and Tourism to Cities, States, and Nations. New York: The Free Press.
Kotler, P., and D. Gertner. 2002. Country as Brand, Product, and Beyond: A Place Marketing and Brand Management Perspective. Journal of Brand Management 9 (4/5): 249–261.
Kotler, P., and K.L. Keller. 2012. Marketing Management (in Brazilian Portuguese), 14th ed. São Paulo: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Kotler, P. 2017. My Adventures in Marketing. Rio de Janeiro: Best Business.
Lee, S., and D.-Y. Kim. 2017. Brand Personality of Airbnb: Application of User Involvement and Gender Differences. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing 35 (1): 32–45.
Mariutti, F.G., R. Tench, J.M.E. Giraldi, and M.G. Montanari. 2017. If I Huff and Puff. Foundations for Building Brazil’s Image: Evidence from an International Systematic Review. Internext 12 (2): 58–73.
Mariutti, F.G., and J.M.E. Giraldi. 2013. Country Brand Identity: An Exploratory Study about the Brazil Brand with American Travel Agencies. Tourism Planning & Development 11 (1): 1–14.
Medway, D., and Warnaby, G. 2016. Multisensory Place Branding (chapter 9). In Handbook on Place Branding and Marketing, ed., A. Campelo, 147–156.
Merriam-Webster. 2018. Dictionary. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/schizophrenia.
Miles, M., A.M. Huberman, and J. Saldana. 2014. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Muniz, K.M., and R.Z. Marchetti. 2012. Brand Personality Dimensions in the Brazilian Context. Brazilian Administration Review 9 (2): 168–188.
Opoku, R., and R. Hinson. 2006. Online Brand Personalities: An Exploratory Analysis of Selected African Countries. Place Branding 2 (2): 118–129.
Papadopoulos, N., Ibrahim, Y., De Nisco, A., and Napolitano, M.R. (2018). The Role of Country Branding in Attracting Foreign Investment: Country Characteristics and Country Image. MERCATI & COMPETITIVITÀ.
Perreault Jr., W.D., and L.E. Leigh. 1989. Reliability of Nominal Data Based on Qualitative Judgments. Journal of Marketing Research 26 (2): 135–148.
Rocha, A.A. 2000. Brasil: A Paradise of Paradoxes. Americas 52 (2): 28–37.
Reuters (2019) Brazil Pension Overhaul Could Turn Foreign Investment Flow into Deluge. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-brazil-economy-investment-analysis/brazil-pension-overhaul-could-turn-foreign-investment-flow-into-deluge-idUSKCN1SF1MC.
Rojas-Méndez, J.I., N. Papadopoulos, and S.A. Murphy. 2013. Measuring and Positioning Nation Brands: A Comparative Brand Personality Approach. Corporate Reputation Review 16 (1): 48–65.
Silva, R.B., and J.M.E. Giraldi. 2016. Personalidade de País e Auto Congruência: um estudo sobre o Brasil. Revista Turismo em Análise 27 (1): 22–42.
Sung, Y., S.M. Choi, H. Ahn, and Y.-A. Song. 2015. Dimensions of Luxury Brand Personality: Scale Development and Validation. Psychology & Marketing 32: 121–132.
Su, J., and X. Tong. 2015. Brand Personality and Brand Equity: Evidence from the Sportswear Industry. Journal of Product & Brand Management 24 (2): 124–133.
Sutter, M.B., J.M.E. Giraldi, M.L. MacLennan, F.M. Borini, E. Crescitelli, and E.F. Polo. 2017. In Search of Tools for the Use of Country Image (CI) in the Brand. Journal of Brand Management 24: 1–14.
Yousaf, S. 2017. Quantification of Country Images as Stereotypes and their Role in Developing a Nation Brand: The Case of Pakistan. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 13 (1): 81–95.
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Gondim Mariutti, F., de Moura Engracia Giraldi, J. Country brand personality of Brazil: a hindsight of Aaker’s theory. Place Brand Public Dipl 16, 251–264 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41254-019-00153-3
- Brand personality
- Country brand personality
- Country brand associations
- Brazil’s country brand