Advertisement

Subjectivity

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 409–431 | Cite as

Psychosomatic feelings as memory practices

  • Elena Trivelli
Original Article

Abstract

I here explore the manifestation of problematic memories on a psychosomatic level, with a focus on the work of psychiatrist Franco Basaglia (1924–1980) in the Italian city of Gorizia. As Basaglia transformed the local asylum into a Therapeutic Community during the 1960s, the city became a nationally acclaimed pilot for alternative psychiatry. After he left in 1968, Gorizia’s characterisation in the media shifted from being a radical experiment to a failed revolution, and the city has since held an ambiguous relationship with this heritage. Using the data gathered through an ethnography conducted between 2011 and 2012, I suggest that the controversial vicissitudes of ‘the Basaglia experience’ and the attempts to erase their emotional weight in Gorizia have left traces that I frame as embodied remembering practices. In discussing psychosomatic expressions of social discomfort, I formulate a body that is both somatic and psychological, contributing to a field at the intersection between psychoanalysis, trauma and affect studies.

Keywords

Gorizia Basaglia psychosomatic nausea embodied memory 

References

  1. Ahmed, S. (2004) The Cultural Politics of Emotions. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Attenasio, L. (ed.) (2005) Basaglia e Fanon: Lo Straniero tra Noi. In: La Cura degli Altri: Seminari di Etnopsichiatria. Roma, Italy: Armando, pp. 5–58.Google Scholar
  3. Babini, V.P. (2009) Liberi Tutti: Manicomi e Psichiatri in Italia: Una Storia del Novecento. Bologna, Italy: Il Mulino.Google Scholar
  4. Barton, R. (1966 [1959]) Institutional Neurosis. Bristol, UK: John Wrightt & Sons.Google Scholar
  5. Basaglia, F. (ed.) (1971 [1968]) L'Istituzione Negata: Rapporto da un Ospedale Psichiatrico. Torino, Italy: Einaudi.Google Scholar
  6. Basaglia, F. (1982a) Appunti di Psichiatria Istituzionale. In: F. Ongaro Basaglia (ed.) Scritti II: 1968–1980: Dall’Apertura del Manicomio alla Nuova Legge sull’Assistenza Psichiatrica. Torino, Italy: Einaudi, pp. 47–72.Google Scholar
  7. Basaglia, F. (1982b) La Giustizia che Punisce: Appunti sull’Ideologia della Punizione. In: F. Ongaro Basaglia (ed.) Scritti II: 1968–1980: Dall’Apertura del Manicomio alla Nuova Legge sull’Assistenza Psichiatrica. Torino, Italy: Einaudi, pp. 185–198.Google Scholar
  8. Basaglia, F. (2000) Conferenze Brasiliane. Milano, Italy: Raffaello Cortina.Google Scholar
  9. Basaglia, F., Ongaro Basaglia, F., Pirella, A. and Taverna, S. (2008) La Nave che Affonda. Milano, Italy: Raffaello Cortina.Google Scholar
  10. Blackman, L. (2012) Immaterial Bodies: Affect, Embodiment, Mediation. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boffey, P.M. (1984) Treating the mentally ill: Trieste’s lesson, The New York Times 17 January, http://www.nytimes.com, accessed 17 July 2014.
  12. Bulfoni, G. (1968) Catturato nei Pressi di Casa il Folle Uxoricida Goriziano. Il Piccolo 29 September, p. 7.Google Scholar
  13. Burkitt, I. (2014) Emotions and Social Relationships. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. C.O.S.P (1975) Intervento. Primo Convegno Nazionale di Psichiatria Democratica. Gorizia, Italy: Critica alle Istituzioni.Google Scholar
  15. Caruth, C. (1996) Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Cento Bull, A. (2007) Italian Neofascism: The Strategy of Tension and the Politics of Nonreconciliation. New York: Berghahan Books.Google Scholar
  17. Cento Bull, A. and Giorgio, A. (eds.) (2006) The 1970s through the looking glass. In: Speaking Out and Silencing: Culture, Society and Politics in Italy in the 1970s. London: Money Publishing, pp. 1–9.Google Scholar
  18. Chiarion, I. (2009) Gorizia non può Rimanere Inerte. Isonzo Soča 82–83: 8–10.Google Scholar
  19. Cho, G.M. (2008) Haunting the Korean Diaspora: Shame, Secrecy, and the Forgotten War. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  20. Clough, P. (2010) The affective turn: Political economy, biomedia and bodies. In: M. Gregg and G. Seigworth (eds.) The Affect Theory Reader. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, pp. 206–225.Google Scholar
  21. Clough, P. and Halley, J. (eds.) (2007) The Affective Turn: Theorizing the Social. Durham and London: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cohen, A. and Saraceno, B. (2002) The risk of freedom: Mental health services in trieste. In: A. Cohen, B. Saraceno and A. Kleinman (eds.) World Mental Health Casebook: Social and Mental Health Programs in Low-Income Countries. New York: Kluwer Academic and Plenum Publishers, pp. 191–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cooper, D. (1967) Psychiatry and Antipsychiatry. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  24. Crawley, C.W. (1969 [1965]) The New Cambridge Modern History: War and Peace in an Age of Upveal, 1793–1830. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Cristoferi Realdon, V. (1981) L’Esperienza: Nove Anni a Gorizia (1972–1981). In: A. Realdon, V. Cristoferi Realdon, R. De Stefano and B. Spazzapan (eds.) Oltre l’Antipsichiatria: Dopo Nove Anni a Gorizia, Riflessioni Critiche da un Ospedale Psichiatrico. Padova, Italy: Piccin, pp. 3–34.Google Scholar
  26. Crociani-Windland, L. and Hoggett, P. (2012) Politics and affect. Subjectivity 5 (2): 161–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cucco, M. (1973) Non Servono più per la Rivoluzione: Dodici Anni di Polemiche sul Manicomio di Gorizia. Famiglia Cristiana 44 (3): 54–61.Google Scholar
  28. Cvetkovich, A. (2003) An Archive of Feelings: Trauma, Sexuality, and Lesbian Public Cultures. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Damilano, M. and Pansa, G. (2006) Democristiani Immaginari: Tutto Quello che c'è da Sapere sulla Balena Bianca. Firenze, Italy: Vallecchi.Google Scholar
  30. Davoine, F. and Gaudillière, J.-M. (2004) History Beyond Trauma: Whereof One Cannot Speak, Therefore One cannot Stay Silent. New York: Other Press.Google Scholar
  31. De Leonardis, O., Mauri, D. and Rotelli, F. (1986) Deinstitutionalisation, another way: The italian mental health reform. Health Promotion 1 (1): 151–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dellago, G. (1983) Introduzione. In: U.S.L. n.2 Goriziana and Movimento Freudiano Internazionale (eds.) Psichiatria e Psicanalisi. Proceedings of the Conference, 10 June, Gorizia, Italy: U.S.L. n.2 Goriziana, pp. 1–7.Google Scholar
  33. De Salvia, D. (1984) Elementi di Statistica ed Epidemiologia sull’Applicazione della 1980. Fogli di Informazione 106 (1): 1–22.Google Scholar
  34. Donnelly, M. (1992) The Politics of Mental Health in Italy. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fain, F. (2012) Come si Cancella una Rivoluzione: Viaggio nei Ruderi del Parco Basaglia. Il Piccolo 19 February, p. 10.Google Scholar
  36. Freud, S. (1978 [1917]) Mourning and Melancholia. In: J. Strachey and A. Freud (eds.) The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psychoanalysis, pp. 243–258.Google Scholar
  37. Giannelli, G. (1965) Libro Bianco sulla Riforma Ospedaliera. Roma, Italy: Tipografia Regionale.Google Scholar
  38. Ginsborg, P. (1990) A History of Contemporary Italy. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  39. Gordon, A.F. (1997) Ghostly Matters: Haunting and the Sociological Imagination. London and Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  40. Il Corriere della Sera (1988) Chi non Volò dal Nido del Cuculo. 21 February, p. 17.Google Scholar
  41. Il Piccolo (1967) L’Ospedale Psichiatrico Provinciale all’Avanguardia nei Criteri di Cura. 11 May, p. 9.Google Scholar
  42. Il Piccolo (1968a) Ampio Dibattito al Consiglio Provinciale dopo le ‘Riserve’ mosse al Dottor Basaglia. 16 October, p. 9.Google Scholar
  43. Il Piccolo (1968b) Il ‘caso Miklus’: Scontro Frontale tra due Scuole di Psichiatria. 16 October, p. 9.Google Scholar
  44. Il Piccolo (1968c) Significati e Prospettive dell'Innovazione Terapeutica. 12 October, p. 10.Google Scholar
  45. Il Piccolo (1982) L’Ideologia Uccide il Malato di Mente. 27 March, p. 9.Google Scholar
  46. Isman, F. (1968) ‘Caso Miklus’ Pietra di Demarcazione tra la Città Impaurita e l'Ospedale Psichiatrico. Il Piccolo 16 November, p. 10.Google Scholar
  47. Jervis, G. (1977) Il Buon Rieducatore: Scritti sugli Usi della Psichiatria e della Psicanalisi. Milano, Italy: Feltrinelli.Google Scholar
  48. Jones, M. (1952) Social Psychiatry: A Study of Therapeutic Communities. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  49. Kennard, D. (1998) An Introduction to Therapeutic Communities. London: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  50. Laing, R.D. (1965 [1960]) The Divided Self. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.Google Scholar
  51. La Stampa (1968) I Fortunati Pazzi di Gorizia, 13 March, p. 10.Google Scholar
  52. L’Espresso (1972) O Gorizia, Tu sei Maledetta. December, pp. 21–25.Google Scholar
  53. L’Espresso (1973) Psichiatria. July, pp.50–53.Google Scholar
  54. Leys, R. (2000) Trauma: A Genealogy. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Leys, R. (2011) The turn to affect: A critique. Critical Inquiry 37 (3): 434–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leys, R. and Goldman, M. (2010) Navigating the genealogies of trauma, guilt, and affect: An interview with Ruth Leys. University of Toronto Quarterly 79 (2): 656–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lombardi, M. (2010) Il Complesso dell’Ex Ospedale Psichiatrico Provinciale di Gorizia: Analisi degli Elementi Costruttivi e degli Aspetti Tecnico-Materici ai Fini della loro Tutela. MA thesis, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste, Italy.Google Scholar
  58. Longinovič, T. and Tomsič, E. (2003) Quando Troppa Storia fa Male. Isonzo Soča 53: 10–15.Google Scholar
  59. Lugli, R. (1974) Lager per 10000 Alienati. La Stampa 24 June, p. 12.Google Scholar
  60. Main, T. (1946) The hospital as a therapeutic institution. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 10 (3): 66–70.Google Scholar
  61. Morace, M. (1982) Psichiatria: Chi Volerà sul Nido del Cuculo? Speciale TG1, Italy: RAI. 1 February, 45 mins.Google Scholar
  62. Papoulias, C. and Callard, F. (2010) Biology’s gift: Interrogating the turn to affect. Body and Society 16 (1): 29–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Papuzzi, A. (1990) Inchiesta nell’Ex Manicomio di Gorizia: Basaglia non Abita più Qui. La Stampa 14 February, p. 12.Google Scholar
  64. Pellegrini, G. (1972) Negati alla Medicina. Lo Specchio August: pp. 15–16.Google Scholar
  65. Perissin, E. (1972) Rapporto da un Ospedale Psichiatrico. Iniziative Isontina 55: 53–84.Google Scholar
  66. Pivetta, O. (2012) Franco Basaglia, il Dottore dei Matti: La Biografia. Milano, Italy: Dalai Editore.Google Scholar
  67. Rizzon, G. (1972) Gorizia: la Rivoluzione Tradita. Il Gazzettino 22 December, p. 11.Google Scholar
  68. Sartre, J.-P. (2000 [1938]) Nausea. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  69. Simoncini, S. (1996a) L’Istituzione Dimenticata: L’Esperienza Psichiatrica a Gorizia negli Anni Sessanta e Settanta: Intervista ad Agostino Pirella. Isonzo Soča 21: 10–14.Google Scholar
  70. Simoncini, S. (1996b) Una Primavera Lunga Dieci Anni: Basaglia a Gorizia e Trieste. Isonzo Soča 21: 4–8.Google Scholar
  71. Shore, C. (1993) Ethnicity as revolutionary strategy: Communist identity construction in Italy. In: S. MacDonald (ed.) Inside European Identities: Ethnography in Western Europe. Oxford: Berg, pp. 27–53.Google Scholar
  72. Szasz, T. (1974 [1961]) The Myth of Mental Illness: Foundations of a Theory of Personal Conduct. New York and London: Harper and Row.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Thrift, N. (2004) Bare life. In: H. Thomas and J. Ahmed (eds.) Cultural Bodies: Ethnography and Theory. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 145–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Trivelli, E. (2013) Assembling memories and affective practices around the psychiatric history of Gorizia: A study of a remembering crisis. Ph.D. thesis, Goldsmiths University, London.Google Scholar
  75. Turco, M. (2010) C'era una Volta la Città dei Matti …. Italy: RAI.Google Scholar
  76. Venturini, E. (2010) L’Incidente di Imola. In: E. Venturini, D. Casagrande and L. Toresini (eds.) Il Folle Reato: Il Rapporto tra la Responsabilità dello Psichiatra e la Imputabilità del Paziente. Milano, Italy: FrancoAngeli, pp. 28–103.Google Scholar
  77. Verbi, G. (1968) È Finito l'Incubo a S. Floriano. Resta lo Sgomento per l'Accaduto. Il Piccolo 29 September, p. 7.Google Scholar
  78. Walkerdine, V., Olsvold, A. and Rudberg, M. (2013) Researching embodiment and intergenerational trauma using the work of Davoine and Gaudillière: History walked in the door. Subjectivity 6 (3): 272–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wetherell, M. (2012) Affect and Emotion: A New Social Science Understanding. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wilson, E. (1998) Neural Geographies: Feminism and the Microstructure of Cognition. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  81. Wilson, E. (2004) Psychosomatic: Feminism and the Neurological Body. Durham and London: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. World Health Organization (1978) Changing Patterns in Mental Health Care: Report on a WHO Working Group. Cologne, Germany: Regional Office for Europe.Google Scholar
  83. Zavoli, S. (1967) I Giardini di Abele. Italy: RAI.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elena Trivelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Independent Scholar

Personalised recommendations