Combating Terrorism on Intellectual Battlefields: Lenses on the Potentials of Universities in Pakistan
- 2 Downloads
The current research examines the potential of Pakistani universities to challenge terrorism on intellectual grounds. In this regard, the qualitative research approach was followed to achieve the research objectives. The researcher interviewed 100 faculty members and heads of teaching departments to collect the data. The thematic analysis approach was followed to reach conclusions. The study reveals that universities in Pakistan face various internal and external challenges, which reduce their capacity to protect students from religious radicalisation. At the end of the article, the consequences of these challenges for students in Pakistan and strategies to strengthen the contribution of Pakistani universities in war against terrorism are deliberated.
Keywordsradicalisation Islamisation teachers curricula thematic analysis
The research was completed with the financial support of Higher Education Commission, Pakistan; Project no. DD/SS&H/TRGP-III/15/825, Dated: May 19, 2015.
- Akbar, A. and Farhan, H. (2017) ‘Mardan University student lynched by mob over alleged blasphemy: police’, Dawn, 13 April. Available on https://www.dawn.com/news/1326729/mardan-university-student-lynched-by-mob-over-alleged-blasphemy-police.
- Ali, I., Rehman, A. and Chaudhry, H. (2015) ‘From IBA graduate to ‘terror suspect’?’, Dawn, 21 May. Available on https://www.dawn.com/news/1183322.
- Associated Press of Pakistan (2013) ‘US acknowledges Pakistan’s fears of Indian presence in Afghanistan’, Dawn, 7 August. Available on https://www.dawn.com/news/1034778.
- Awan, M.F. (2016) ‘Democracy, development and the dominant discourse in Pakistan: prospects and challenges for internal stability’, in M.H. Mercan (ed.) Transformation of the Muslim World in the 21st Century, Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 131–144.Google Scholar
- Balakrishnan, N. (2016) ‘How Education Ministry plans to use classrooms to fight terrorism in Malaysia’, Says, 6 January. Available on http://says.com/my/news/malaysia-to-fight-terrorism-and-isis-by-starting-anti-terrorism-talks-in-schools.
- Butt, Q. (2011) ‘Balochistan conflict: PM’s talks with leaders unlikely to succeed’, The Express Tribune, 7 August. Available on https://tribune.com.pk/story/225958/balochistan-conflict-pms-talks-with-leaders-unlikely-to-succeed/.
- DeAngelis, T. (2009) ‘Understanding terrorism’, Monitor on Psychology 40(10): 60.Google Scholar
- Fair, C.C. (2015) ‘Democracy on the leash in Pakistan’, in C.C. Fair and S.J. Watson (eds.) Pakistan’s Enduring Challenges, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 131–155.Google Scholar
- Gilani, S.A. (2017) ‘Why counterterrorism course should be offered in universities of Pakistan?’, The Nation, 19 October. Available on https://nation.com.pk/19-Oct-2017/why-counterterrorism-course-should-be-offered-in-universities-of-pakistan.
- Government of Pakistan (2009) National Education Policy 2009. Islamabad: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
- Halai, N. (2013) ‘Quality of private universities in Pakistan: an analysis of higher education commission rankings 2012’, International Journal of Educational Management 27(7): 775–786.Google Scholar
- Haqqani, H. (2010) Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military, Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
- Haqqani, H. (2015) Magnificent Delusions: Pakistan, the United States, and an Epic History of Misunderstanding (2nd Edition), New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
- Higher Education Commission (2016) 5th Ranking of Pakistani Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) 2015, Islamabad: Government of Pakistan.Google Scholar
- Horgan, J. (2014) The Psychology of Terrorism, New York: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
- Iqbal, K. (2015) The Making of Pakistani Human Bombs, Lanham, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
- Khan, F. (2015) ‘Assistants of terror: how women raise funds for Da’ish in Karachi’, Express Tribune, 21 December. Available on https://tribune.com.pk/story/1013558/assistants-of-terror-revealed-how-women-raise-funds-for-daish-in-karachi/.
- Martin, B.L. and Briggs, L.J. (1986) The Affective and Cognitive Domains: Integration for Instruction and Research, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.Google Scholar
- Miller, E. (2014) Terrorist Attacks on Educational Institutions: Background Report, College Park, MD: National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START).Google Scholar
- Moulvi, M. (2017) ‘Absence of an anti-terrorism narrative’, The Express Tribune; 24 August. Available on https://tribune.com.pk/story/1489441/absence-anti-terrorism-narrative/.
- Murphy, E. (2013) The Making of Terrorism in Pakistan: Historical and Social Roots of Extremism, New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Pape, R. (2006) Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism, New York: Random House Publishing Group.Google Scholar
- Rehman, F.U., Nasir, M. and Shahbaz, M. (2017) ‘What have we learned? Assessing the effectiveness of counterterrorism strategies in Pakistan’, Economic Modelling 64: 487–495.Google Scholar
- Saeed, L. and Syed, S.H. (2016) ‘Insights into selected features of Pakistan’s most wanted terrorists’, Terrorism and Political Violence, first published online March 2. https://doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2016.1142442.
- Siddiqa, A. (2010) Red Hot Chilli Peppers Islam: Is the Youth in Elite Universities in Pakistan Radical?, Islamabad: Heinrich-Boll-Stiftung.Google Scholar
- Van Petegem, K., Creemers, B., Aelterman, A. and Rosseel, Y. (2008) ‘The importance of pre-measurements of wellbeing and achievement for students’ current wellbeing’, South African Journal of Education 28(4): 451–468.Google Scholar