An Agent-Based Model of Ethnocentrism and the Unintended Consequences of Violence
- 2 Downloads
We repurpose an agent-based model of ethnocentrism to show how violence affects people’s willingness to cooperate with members of other groups. We account for extra benefits which arise from interacting with a member of the same culture (‘cultural boosts’) and for mutual gains from cooperative activities (‘public goods’). In environments where one person gains at another’s expense, violence decreases ethnocentrism. However, violence increases ethnocentric behavior when cooperation produces shared benefits. These results point to new empirical questions and contribute to policy discussions regarding the use and reduction of violence.
KeywordsViolence Ethnocentrism Agent-based modeling
JEL ClassificationB55 D74 D90
- Buvinic, M., and A. Morrison. 1999. Violence as an obstacle to development. Inter-American Development Bank. Technical Note 4.Google Scholar
- Caporael, L. 2007. Evolutionary theory for social and cultural psychology. In Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles. 2nd ed, ed. A.W. Kruglanski and E.T. Higgins, 3–18. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Hartshorn, M., A. Kaznatcheev, and T. Shultz. 2013. The evolutionary dominance of ethnocentric cooperation. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 16(3): 7. http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/16/3/7.html.
- Humphreys, M. 2003. Economics and violent conflict. Cambridge, MA. https://www.unicef.org/spanish/socialpolicy/files/Economics_and_Violent_Conflict.pdf.
- Landa, J.T. 1994. Trust, Ethnicity, and Identity. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
- Mathieu, P., B. Beaufils, and O. Brandouy (eds.). 2005. Artificial Economics: Agent-Based Methods in Finance, Game Theory and Their Applications, vol. 564. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Mihalyi, L. 1984–1985. Ethnocentrism versus nationalism: Origin and fundamental aspects of a major problem for the future. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations 12(1): 95–113.Google Scholar
- Railsback, S.F., and V. Grimm. 2011. Agent-Based and Individual-Based Modeling: A Practical Introduction. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Westneat, D. and C.W. Fox (eds.). 2010. Evolutionary Behavioral Ecology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar