Advertisement

Development

, Volume 62, Issue 1–4, pp 160–166 | Cite as

Gharbzadegi in Iran: A Reactionary Alternative to ‘Development’?

  • Aram ZiaiEmail author
Unplugged
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

Post-development theory usually engages with examples from Latin America and India and investigates alternative concepts and practices by progressive social movements. This article addresses a post-development concept which originates in Iran, Gharbzadegi or occidentosis, which after the Islamic revolution in 1979 was promoted by the anti-Western Iranian government. It argues that the instrumentalization by right-wing governments should not distract from the emancipatory potential of post-development concepts.

Keywords

Post-development Iran Development theory Westernization Modernization 

Notes

References

  1. Acosta, Alberto. 2009. Das ‘Buen Vivir’. Die Schaffung einer Utopie. Juridikum 4: 219–223.Google Scholar
  2. Afshar, Haleh. 1987. Women, marriage and the state in Iran. In The Women, Gender & Development Reader, ed. Nalini Visvanathan, Lynn Duggan, and Laurie Nisonogg, 317–320. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  3. Afshari, Reza. 1994. A critique of Dabashi’s reconstruction of Islamic ideology as a prerequisite for the Iranian Revolution. Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies 3 (5): 67–83.Google Scholar
  4. Al-i Ahmad, Jalal. 1984. (1962). Occidentosis: A Plague from the West. Berkeley: Mizan Press.Google Scholar
  5. Alvares, Claude. 1992. Science, Development and Violence. The Revolt against Modernity. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Blaikie, Piers. 2000. Development: post-, anti-, and populist. A critical review. Environment and Planning 32 (6): 1023–1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brass, Tom. 2000. Peasants, Populism and Postmodernism. The Return of the Agrarian Myth. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  8. Corbridge, Stuart. 1998. Beneath the Pavement only Soil’: The Poverty of Post-Development. Journal of Development Studies 34 (6): 138–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dabashi, Hamid. 2006. Theology of Discontent. The Ideological foundation of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. 2. A. Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  10. Escobar, Arturo. 1995. Encountering Development. The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Escobar, Arturo. 2012. Encountering Development. The Making and Unmaking of the Third World, Second expanded ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Esteva, Gustavo. 1995. FIESTA – jenseits von Entwicklung, Hilfe und Politik. Frankfurt a.M.: Brandes & Apsel.Google Scholar
  13. Esteva, Gustavo, and Madhu Suri Prakash. 1998. GRASSROOTS post-Modernism. Remaking the Soil of Cultures. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  14. Fatheuer, Thomas. 2011. Buen Vivir. Eine kurze Einführung in Lateinamerikas neue Konzepte zum guten Leben und zu den Rechten der Natur. Berlin: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung.Google Scholar
  15. Gudynas, Eduardo. 2012. Buen Vivir. Das gute Leben jenseits von Entwicklung und Wachstum. Berlin: Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung.Google Scholar
  16. Hanson, Brad. 1983. The ‘Westoxication’ of Iran: Depictions and reactions of Behrangi, Al-e Ahmad, and Shari’ati. International Journal of Middle East Studies 15: 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hasib, S.Waqar. 2004. The Iranian Constitution: An Exercise in Contradictions. Al Nakhlah. The Fletcher School Online Journal for issues related to Southwest Asia and Islamic Civilization 1: 1–10.Google Scholar
  18. Hauck, Gerhard. 2012. Globale Vergesellschaftung und koloniale Differenz. Münster: Westfälisches Dampfboot.Google Scholar
  19. Hettne, Björn, and Shariati Ali (eds.). 1995. Development Theory and the Three Worlds: Towards an international political economy of development, 2.A. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  20. Iran (Islamic Republic of) 1989: Constitution of 1979 with Amendments through 1989. Online: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Iran_1989.pdf?lang=en. Accessed 17 Sept 2019.
  21. Khamene’i, Ayatullah Sayyid Ali, and Shariati Ali (eds.). 1997. Iqbal – Manifestation of the Islamic Spirit. Two Contemporary Muslim Views. Chicago: Kazi Publications.Google Scholar
  22. Kiely, Ray. 1999. The Last Refuge of the Noble Savage? A critical assessment of Post-Development Theory’. The European Journal of Development Research 11 (1): 30–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Najmabadi, Afseneh. 1991. Hazards of Modernity and Morality: Women, the State and Ideology in Contemporary Iran. In Women, Islam and the State, ed. Deniz Kandiyoti, 48–76. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nanda, Meera. 1999. Who needs Post-Development? Discourses of Difference, Green Revolution and Agrarian Populism in India. Journal of Developing Societies 15 (1): 5–31.Google Scholar
  25. Nandy, Ashis (ed.). 1988. Science, Hegemony and Violence. A Requiem for Modernity. UNU. Tokyo: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Pieterse, Nederveen. 1998. My Paradigm or Yours? Alternative Development, Post-Development, Reflexive Development. Development and Change 29: 343–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pesaran, M.H. 1982. The System of Dependent Capitalism in Pre- and Post-Revolutionary Iran. International Journal of Middle East Studies 14 (4): 501–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pesaran, Evaleila. 2008. Towards and Anti-Western Stance: The Economic Discourse of Iran’s 1979 Revolution. Iranian Studies 41 (5): 693–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rahnema, Majid. 1997. Development and the People’s Immune System: The Story of another Variety of AIDS. Rahnema & Bawtree 1997: 111–129.Google Scholar
  30. Rahnema, Majid, and Victoria Bawtree (eds.). 1997. The Post-Development Reader. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  31. Revenue Watch Institute. 2012. Iran’s Oil and Gas Management. A Ticking Bomb? Briefing February. https://resourcegovernance.org/sites/default/files/rwi_bp_iran2.pdf. 30 June 2018.
  32. Rist, Gilbert. 1997. The History of Development. From Western Origins to Global Faith. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  33. Saghafi, Morad. 2001. Crossing the desert: Iranian intellectuals after the Islamic revolution. Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies 10 (18): 15–45.Google Scholar
  34. Said, Edward. 1978. Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  35. Sarkhosh, Soussan. 2000. Verwestlichung versus Modernsierung: Gegenwärtige Diskurs im Iran. In Subjekte und Systeme. Soziologische und Anthropologische Annäherungen. Festschrift für Christian Sigrist zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. Günter Best and Reinhart Kößler, 249–257. Frankfurt a.M.: IKO-Verlag für Interkulturelle Kommunikation.Google Scholar
  36. Shiva, Vandana. 1989. Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Survival in India. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  37. Zamirirad, Azadeh, and Arash Sarkohi. 2011. Herrschaft und Moderne im politischen Diskurs Irans. WeltTrends Papiere 17. Potsdam: Universitätsverlag Potsdam.Google Scholar
  38. Ziai, Aram. 2004. The ambivalence of post-development: between reactionary populism and radical democracy. Third World Quarterly 25 (6): 1045–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ziai, Aram. 2015. Post-Development: Premature Burials and Haunting Ghosts’. Development and Change 46 (4): 833–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ziai, Aram. 2017. “I am not a Postdevelopmentalist, but…” – The influence of Post-Development on development studies. Third World Quarterly 38 (12): 2719–2734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for International Development 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of KasselKasselGermany

Personalised recommendations