pp 1–23 | Cite as

Oestrogen receptors and breast cancer: are we prepared to move forward? A critical review

  • Yolanda ErasoEmail author
Original Article


It is nearly 60 years since the identification of the oestrogen hormone receptor (ER) in breast cancer, a discovery that radically transformed the clinical management of the disease. Hormonal therapy with anti-oestrogens (Tamoxifen and Aromatase inhibitors) antagonises ER function and became the mainstay treatment until today. Around 70% of breast tumours are classified as oestrogen dependent, yet the mechanism of action of other hormones in breast cancer growth both independently and interacting with ER as well as their targeted therapies have yet to find a place in the clinic. In this article, I critically review the scientific literature for the period 1960–2016 and examine the rise and persistence of the oestrogen hypothesis as well as the neglect of alternative hormonal explanations. By using Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of the scientific field alongside feminist science scholars to explore the impact of gendered assumptions on science, the analysis provides insight into the dominant role of the oestrogen hypothesis and the struggles for legitimation of different alternative perspectives. I consider these alternative approaches as “internal” struggles for scientific authority, which are in turn, socially determined by “external” gender values that reinforce a binary arrangement of male/female bodies based on fixed molecular hormonal traits.


Breast cancer Hormone therapy Hormone receptors Gender Bourdieu 



I would like to thank the comments of colleagues and participants of the Remaking Cancer Network at the University of Manchester and the Institute of Humanities at the National University of Córdoba where versions of this paper were discussed. I extend my sincere gratitude and thanks to the anonymous reviewers who generously provided feedback. I also acknowledge the support of London Metropolitan University who provided financial support for the research discussed in the article.


Funding was provided by London Metropolitan University, Quality-related research funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

The manuscript is based on secondary research, so ethical approval was not required.


  1. Agoff, S.N., et al. 2003. Androgen receptor expression in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer immunohistochemical, clinical, and prognostic associations. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 120: 725–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Annandale, E., and A. Hammarström. 2010. Constructing the ‘gender-specific body’: A critical discourse analysis of publications in the field of gender-specific medicine. Health 15 (6): 571–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anon, 1979. Consensus: Use of estrogen receptor assay. Journal of the American Medical Association 242 (16): 1714–1716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakker, G.H., et al. 1987. Comparison of the actions of the antiprogestin mifepristone (RU 486), the progestin megestrol acetate, the LHRH analog buserelin, and ovariectomy in treatment of rat mammary tumors. Cancer Treatment Reports 71 (11): 1021–1027.Google Scholar
  5. Bakker, G.H., et al. 1990. Treatment of breast cancer with different antiprogestins: Preclinical and clinical studies. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 37: 789–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baniahmad, A., et al. 1995. The T4 activation domain of the thyroid hormone receptor is required for release of a putative corepressor(s) necessary for transcriptional silencing. Molecular and Cellular Biology 15: 76–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barad, K. 2007. Meeting the universe halfway: Quantum physics and the entanglement of matter and meaning. Durham: Duke UP.Google Scholar
  8. Bardon, S., et al. 1985. RU 486, a progestin and glucocorticoid antagonist, inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells via the progesterone receptor. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 60: 692–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Birke, L. 2000. Sitting on the fence: Biology, feminism and gender-bending environments. Women’s Studies International Forum 23 (5): 587–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Birrel, S.N., et al. 1998. Role of the androgen receptor in human breast cancer. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 3 (1): 95–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bourdieu, P. 1975. The specificity of the scientific field: The social conditions of the progress of reason. Social Science Information 14: 19–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bourdieu, P. 1990. Animadversions in merton. In Robert K. Merton: Consensus and controversy, ed. J. Clark, C. Modgil, and S. Modgil, 297–301. London: Falmer.Google Scholar
  13. Bourdieu, P. 1991. The peculiar history of scientific reason. Sociological Forum 6: 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bourdieu, P. 2004. Science of science and reflexivity. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  15. Brubaker, R. 1993. Social theory as Habitus. In Bourdieu: Critical perspectives, 2nd ed, ed. C. Calhoun, E. LiPuma, and M. Postone, 212–234. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bryan, R.M., et al. 1984. Androgen receptors in breast cancer. Cancer 54: 2436–2440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Camic, C. 2011. Bourdieu’s cleft sociology of science. Minerva 49: 275–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carroll, J.S. 2016. Mechanisms of oestrogen receptor (ER) gene regulation in breast cancer. European Journal of Endocrinology 175 (1): R41–R49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chan, L., A.R. Means, and B.W. O’Malley. 1973. Rates of induction of specific translatable messenger RNAs for ovalbumin and avidin by steroid hormones. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 70: 1870–1874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clarke, A., and T. Montini. 1993. The many faces of RU486: Tales of situated knowledges and technological contestations. Science, Technology and Human Values 18 (1): 42–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cole, M., et al. 1971. A new anti-oestrogenic agent in late breast cancer an early clinical appraisal of IC146474. British Journal of Cancer 25 (2): 270–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coss, C.C., A. Jones, and J.T. Dalton. 2014. Selective androgen receptor modulators as improved androgen therapy for advanced breast cáncer. Steroids 90: 94–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry. 1951. Current status of hormone therapy of advanced mammary cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association 146 (5): 471–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dao, T.L., et al. 1982. Effect of estrogen and progesterone on cellular replication of human breast tumors. Cancer Research 42 (1): 359–362.Google Scholar
  25. Darby, S., C. Davies, and P. McGale. 2005. The Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group: A brief history of results to date. In Celebrating statistics: Papers in honour of Sir David Cox on His 80th Birthday, ed. A.C. Davison, Y. Dodge, and N. Wermuth, 185–198. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Amicis, F., et al. 2010. Androgen receptor overexpression induces tamoxifen resistance in human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 121 (1): 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. EBCTCG Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. 2005. Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: An overview of the randomised trials. The Lancet 365 (9472): 1687–1717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Engelsman, E., et al. 1974. Oestrogen and androgen receptors in human breast cancer. British Medical Journal 30 (2): 177.Google Scholar
  29. Eraso, Y. 2014. Género, hormonas y cáncer de mama. Perspectivas comparadas en Norte y Sudamérica. In De las Hormonas Sexuadas al Viagra. Ciencia, Medicina y Sexualidad en Argentina y Brasil, ed. C. Rustoyburu, A. Cepeda, 75–109. Mar del Plata: Editorial de la Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata.Google Scholar
  30. Eraso, Y. 2018. El reino del estrógeno. Generizando el tratamiento hormonal para el cáncer de mama. In Cuerpos Hormonales. Intersecciones entre Laboratorio, Clínica y Sociedad, ed. C. Rustoyburu, A. Cepeda, 53–90. Mar del Plata: Editorial de la Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata.Google Scholar
  31. Fausto-Sterling, A. 2000. Sexing the body. Gender politics and the construction of sexuality. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  32. Fausto-Sterling, A. 2005. The bare bones of sex: Part 1—Sex and gender. Signs Journal of Women in Culture and Society 30 (2): 1491–1527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fausto-Sterling, A. 2017. Against dichotomy. Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture. Scholar
  34. Filardo, E.J., et al. 2000. Estrogen-induced activation of Erk-1 and Erk-2 requires the G protein-coupled receptor homolog, GPR30, and occurs via trans-activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor through release of HBEGF. Molecular Endocrinology 14: 1649–1660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fioretti, F.M., et al. 2014. Revising the role of the androgen receptor in breast cancer. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 52 (3): R257–R265. Scholar
  36. Fisher, B., et al. 1998. Tamoxifen for the prevention of breast cancer: Report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90: 1371–1388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garay, J.P., and B.H. Park. 2012. Androgen receptor as a targeted therapy for breast cancer. American Journal of Cancer Research 2 (4): 434–445.Google Scholar
  38. Geisler, J., and P.E. Lønning. 2005. Aromatase inhibition—Translation into a successful therapeutic approach. Clinical Cancer Research 11 (8): 2809–2821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Goldenberg, I.S. 1964. Testosterone propionate therapy in breast cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association 22 (188): 1069–1072.Google Scholar
  40. Goldenberg, I.S., et al. 1973. Androgenic therapy for advanced breast cancer in women. A report of the Cooperative Breast Cancer Group. Journal of the American Medical Association 223: 1267–1268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gordan, G. 1969. Progress in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. California Medicine 111 (1): 38–45.Google Scholar
  42. Graham, J.D., et al. 1995. Characterization of progesterone receptor A and B expression in human breast cancer. Cancer Research 55 (21): 5063–5068.Google Scholar
  43. Green, S., et al. 1986. Human oestrogen receptor cDNA: Sequence, expression and homology to v-erb-A. Nature 320 (6058): 134–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hagan, C.R., and C.A. Lange. 2014. Molecular determinants of context-dependent progesterone receptor action in breast cancer. BMC Medicine 12: 32. Scholar
  45. Hall, R.E., et al. 1996. Expression of the androgen receptor and an androgen-responsive protein, apolipoprotein D, in human breast cancer. British Journal of Cancer 74: 1175–1180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Higa, G.M., and R.G. Fell. 2013. Sex hormone receptor repertoire in breast cancer. International Journal of Breast Cancer 1: 2. Scholar
  47. Horwitz, K.B. 1992. The molecular biology of RU 486. Is there a role for antiprogestins in the treatment of breast cancer? Endocrine Reviews 13: 146–163.Google Scholar
  48. Horwitz, K. 1993. B9 antiprogestins and the treatment of breast cancer. In Institute of Medicine. Clinical Applications of Mifepristone (RU486) and other Antiprogestins: Assessing the Science and Recommending a Research Agenda. Washington, DC: The National Academy Press, 210–228; online book, Accessed 9 March 2018.
  49. Horwitz, K.B., and G.R. Freidenberg. 1985. Growth inhibition and increase of insulin receptors in antiestrogen-resistant T47Dco human breast cancer cells by progestins: Implications for endocrine therapies. Cancer Research 45 (1): 167–173.Google Scholar
  50. Horwitz, K.B., et al. 1975a. Predicting response to endocrine therapy in human breast cancer: A hypothesis. Science, New Series 189 (4204): 726–727.Google Scholar
  51. Horwitz, K.B., et al. 1975b. MCF-7: A human breast cancer cell line with estrogen, androgen, progesterone, and glucocorticoid receptors. Steroids 26 (6): 785–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Institute of Medicine. 1993. Other therapeutic uses of antiprogestins. Clinical Applications of Mifepristone (RU486) and Other Antiprogestins: Assessing the Science and Recommending a Research Agenda. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 36–51; online book. Accessed 9 March 2018.Google Scholar
  53. Irni, S. 2016. Steroid provocations: On the materiality of politics in the history of sex hormones. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 41 (3): 507–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Isola, J.J. 1993. Immunohistochemical demonstration of androgen receptor in breast cancer and its relationship to other prognostic factors. The Journal of Pathology 170 (1): 31–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jacobsen, B., et al. 2002. New human breast cancer cells to study progesterone receptor isoform ratio effects and ligand-independent gene regulation. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277: 27793–27800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jensen, E.V., and H. Jacobsen. 1962. Basic guides to the mechanism of estrogen action. Recent Progress in Hormone Research 18: 387–414.Google Scholar
  57. Jensen, E.V., et al. 1966. Estrogen receptors in target tissues. In Steroid dynamics, ed. G. Pincus, T. Nakao, and J. Tair, 133–157. New York and London: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jensen, E.V., et al. 1971. Estrogen receptors and breast cancer response to adrenalectomy. National Cancer Institute Monographs 34: 55–70.Google Scholar
  59. Jensen, E.V., et al. 2010. Estrogen action: A historic perspective on the implications of considering alternative approaches. Physiology & Behavior 99 (2): 151–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jordan, V.C. 1976. Effect of tamoxifen (ICI 46,474) on initiation and growth of DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinomata. European Journal of Cancer 12: 419–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jordan, V.C. 1978. Use of the DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinoma system for the evaluation of tamoxifen as a potential adjuvant therapy. Reviews on Endocrine-related Cancer 49–55.Google Scholar
  62. Jordan, V.C. 2014. Tamoxifen as the first targeted long-term adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. Endocrine-Related Cancer 21 (3): R235–R246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jordan, V.C., and K.E. Allen. 1980. Evaluation of the antitumour activity of the non-steroidal antioestrogen monohydroxytamoxifen in the DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinoma model. European Journal of Cancer 16: 239–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jordan, V.C., and A. Brodie. 2007. Development and evolution of therapies targeted to the estrogen receptor for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Steroids 72 (1): 7–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Karkazis, K., and R.M. Jordan-Young. 2018. The powers of testosterone: Obscuring race and regional bias in the regulation of women athletes. Feminist Formations 30 (2): 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kaufman, R.J. 1981. Advanced breast cancer: Additive hormonal therapy. Cancer Journal for Clinicians 31 (4): 194–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kordon, E., et al. 1990. Hormone dependence of a mouse mammary tumor line induced in vivo by medroxyprogesterone acetate. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 17 (1): 33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kraus, W.E., et al. 1995. Inhibitory cross-talk between steroid hormone receptors: Differential targeting of estrogen receptor in the repression of its transcriptional activity by agonist- and antagonist-occupied progestin receptors. Molecular and Cellular Biology 15 (4): 1847–1857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Krieger, N., et al. 2005. Hormone replacement therapy, cancer, controversies, and women’s health: Historical, epidemiological, biological, clinical, and advocacy perspectives. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 59: 740–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kuiper, G.C., et al. 1996. Cloning of a novel receptor expressed in rat prostate and ovary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93 (12): 5925–5930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lanari, C., et al. 1986. Induction of mammary adenocarcinomas by medroxyprogesterone acetate in BALB/c female mice. Cancer Letters 33 (2): 215–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lea, O.A., S. Kvinnsland, and T. Thorsen. 1989. Improved measurement of androgen receptors in human breast cancer. Cancer Research 15 (49): 7162–7167.Google Scholar
  73. Levin, E.R. 2001. Cell localization, physiology, and nongenomic actions of estrogen receptors. Journal of Applied Physiology 91: 1860–1867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lippman, M.E., G. Bolan, and K.A. Huff. 1976. The effects of androgens and antiandrogens on hormone responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. Cancer Research 36: 4610–4618.Google Scholar
  75. Loeser, A.A. 1940. Subcutaneous implantation of female and male hormone in tablet form in women. British Medical Journal 1 (4133): 479–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Marks, L. 2010. Sexual chemistry: A history of the contraceptive pill. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Martin, E. [1988]. 2016. Medical metaphors of women’s bodies: Menstruation and menopause. In Understanding and applying medical anthropology, ed. P.J. Brown and S. Closser, 262–273. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  78. Mathieu, A., and D. Kleinman. 2011. Bringing Pierre Bourdieu to Science and Technology Studies. Minerva 49: 263–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Maudelonde, T., et al. 1987. First clinical trial on the use of the antiprogestin RU 486 in advanced breast cancer. In Hormonal manipulation of cancer: Peptides, growth factors and new (anti-)steroidal agents, ed. J.G. Klijn, R. Paridaens, and J.A. Foekens, 55–65. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  80. McCall, L. 1992. Does gender fit? Bourdieu, feminism, and conceptions of social order. Theory and Society 21 (6): 837–867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. McGuire, W., and M. Delagarza. 1973. Similarity of the estrogen receptor in human and rat mammary carcinoma. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 36 (3): 548–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McGuire, W., et al. 1977. Current status of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer. Cancer 6 (39): 2934–2947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Michna, H., et al. 1992. The antitumor potency of progesterone antagonists is due to their differentiation potential. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 43 (1–3): 203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Moi, T. 1999. What is a woman?. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Moinfar, F., et al. 2003. Androgen receptors frequently are expressed in breast carcinomas: Potential relevance to new therapeutic strategies. Cancer 98 (4): 703–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Narayanan, R., et al. 2014. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) negatively regulate triple-negative breast cancer growth and epithelial: Mesenchymal stem cell signaling. PLoS ONE 9 (7): e103202. Scholar
  87. Nathan, A., J. Babcock, and J. Hogg. 1959. Adrenal hormones and related compounds. Journal of Organic Chemistry 24 (9): 1395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nicholson, R.I., et al. 1999. Involvement of steroid hormone and growth factor cross-talk in endocrine response in breast cancer. Endocrine-Related Cancer 6: 373–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Niemeier, L., et al. 2010. Androgen receptor in breast cancer: Expression in estrogen receptor-positive tumors and in estrogen receptor-negative tumors with apocrine differentiation. Modern Pathology 23: 205–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. NIH. 1985. Adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. NIH Consensus Statement. 5(12):1–19. Accessed 02 April 2018.
  91. Noteboom, W.D., and J. Gorski. 1965. Stereospecific binding of estrogens in the rat uterus. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 111 (3): 559–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Oudshoorn, N. 1994. Beyond the natural body. An archeology of sex hormones. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  93. O’Malley, B.W., and W.L. McGuire. 1968. Studies on the mechanism of estrogen-mediated tissue differentiation: Regulation of nuclear transcription and induction of new RNA species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 60: 1527–1534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pederson, T. 2011. Mahlon Hoagland 1921–2009. A biographical memoir. Washington: National Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  95. Perou, C.M., et al. 2000. Molecular portraits of human breast tumours. Nature 406 (6797): 747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Peters, A.A., et al. 2009. Androgen receptor inhibits estrogen receptor-A activity and is prognostic in breast cancer. Cancer Research 69 (15): 6131–6139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pierson-Mullany, L.K., et al. 2003. Cross-talk between growth factor and progesterone receptor signaling pathways: Implications for breast cancer cell growth. Breast Disease 18: 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Prossnitz, E.R., and J.B. Arterburn. 2015. International union of basic and clinical pharmacology. XCVII. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor and its pharmacologic modulators. Pharmacological Reviews 67: 505–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Prossnitz, E.R., and M. Barton. 2011. The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER in health and disease. Nature Reviews. Endocrinology 7 (12): 715–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rampurwala, R., et al. 2016. Role of the androgen receptor in triple-negative breast cancer. Clinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology 4 (3): 186–193.Google Scholar
  101. Roberts, C. 2007. Messengers of sex: Hormones, biomedicine and feminism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ross, J.S., et al. 2009. The HER-2 receptor and breast cancer: Ten years of targeted anti-HER-2 therapy and personalized medicine. Oncologist 14: 320–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Roy, D. 2018. Molecular feminisms: Biology, becomings, and life in the lab. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Scholar
  104. Schiff, R., et al. 2004. Cross-talk between estrogen receptor and growth factor pathways as a molecular target for overcoming endocrine resistance. Clinical Cancer Research 10 (1): 331s–336s. Scholar
  105. Segaloff, A. 1966. Hormones and breast cancer. Recent Progress in Hormone Research 22: 351–379.Google Scholar
  106. Segaloff, A. 1975. Hormonal therapy of breast cancer. Cancer Treatment Reviews 2: 129–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sedlacek, S.M. 1988. An overview of megestrol acetate for the treatment of advanced breast cancer. Seminars in Oncology 15 (2): 3–13.Google Scholar
  108. Shyamala, G., and J. Gorski. 1969. Estrogen receptors in the rat uterus. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 244 (5): 1097–1103.Google Scholar
  109. Sikora, M.J. 2016. Family matters: Collaboration and conflict among the steroid receptors raises a need for group therapy. Endocrinology 157 (12): 4553–4560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Smith, C.L., Z. Nawaz, and B.W. O’Malley. 1997. Coactivator and corepressor regulation of the agonist/antagonist activity of the mixed antiestrogen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Molecular Endocrinology 11: 657–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Søreide, J.A., et al. 1992. Androgen receptors in operable breast cancer: Relation to other steroid hormone receptors, correlations to prognostic factors and predictive value for effect of adjuvant tamoxifen treatment. European Journal of Surgical Oncology 18: 112–118.Google Scholar
  112. Sørlie, T., et al. 2001. Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98 (19): 10869–10874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Spanier, B. 1995. Im/partial science: Gender ideology in molecular biology. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  114. Stewart, S., and C. Rauch. 2016. Rethinking therapeutic strategies in cancer: Wars, fields, anomalies and monsters. Social Theory & Health 14: 475–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Talley, R.W., et al. 1973. A dose-response evaluation of androgens in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Cancer 32 (2): 315–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Tarulli, G.A., et al. 2014. Bringing androgens up a NOTCH in breast cancer. Endocrine-Related Cancer 21: T183–T202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Vera-Badillo, F.E., et al. 2014. Androgen receptor expression and outcomes in early breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 106 (1): djt319. Scholar
  118. Watkins, E.S. 2007. The estrogen elixer: A history of hormone replacement therapy in America. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Zhao, C., et al. 2008. Estrogen receptor β: An overview and update. Nuclear Receptor Signaling. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Limited 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social ProfessionsLondon Metropolitan UniversityLondonUK

Personalised recommendations