An Urban Crisis Management System for Critical Infrastructures: Participation Possibilities for Insurance Companies
- 75 Downloads
This paper discusses participation possibilities for German insurance companies in an urban crisis management system (UCMS) for critical infrastructures (CIs), which helps better monitor and manage CIs. We examine if and how insurance companies from Germany can contribute as actors in such innovative systems to holistically protect CIs. We meet this objective by conducting an expert survey in the German insurance industry and find that it lacks the willingness or ability to participate in a UCMS. While we discover occasional interest regarding the insurer’s predefined roles as a data/knowledge provider, investor or data user, each participation possibility poses challenges for insurance companies.
Keywordscivil protection critical infrastructures insurance companies crisis management public–private partnerships information system
This work was supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany (Grant Number 13N12332).
- Abele-Wigert, I. and Dunn, M. (2006) International CIIP Handbook 2006 (Vol. I): An Inventory of 20 National and 6 International Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Policies, Zurich: Center for Security Studies (CSS), ETH.Google Scholar
- Andersson, J.J. and Malm, A. (2006) ‘Public–private partnerships and the challenge of critical infrastructure protection’, in M. Dunn and V. Mauer (eds) International CIIP Handbook 2006 (Vol. II): Analyzing Issues, Challenges, and Prospects, Zurich: Center for Security Studies (CSS), ETH, pp 139–167.Google Scholar
- Auerswald, P.E., Branscomb, L.M., La Porte, T.M. and Michel-Kerjan, E.O. (2005) ‘The challenge of protecting critical infrastructure’, Issues in Science and Technology 22(1): 77–83.Google Scholar
- Auerswald, P.E., Branscomb, L.M., La Porte, T.M. and Michel-Kerjan, E.O. (2006a) ‘Leadership: Who will act? Integrating public and private interests to make a safer world’, in P.E. Auerswald, L.M. Branscomb, T.M. La Porte and E.O. Michel-Kerjan (eds) Seeds of Disaster, Roots of Response: How Private Action Can Reduce Public Vulnerability, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp 483–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Auerswald, P.E., Branscomb, L.M., La Porte, T.M. and Michel-Kerjan, E.O. (2006b) ‘Where private efficiency meets public vulnerability: The critical infrastructure challenge’, in P.E. Auerswald, L.M. Branscomb, T.M. La Porte and E.O. Michel-Kerjan (eds) Seeds of Disaster, Roots of Response: How Private Action Can Reduce Public Vulnerability, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brömmelhörster, J., Fabry, S. and Wirtz, N. (2003) Internationale Aktivitäten zum Schutz kritischer Infrastrukturen, Federal Office for Information Security (ed), Ingelheim: SecuMedia.Google Scholar
- Bush, B.B., Dauelsberg, L.R., LeClaire, R.J., Powell, D.R., DeLand, S.M. and Samsa, M.E. (2005) ‘Critical infrastructure protection decision support system (CIP/DSS) project overview’, paper presented at the 23rd International Conference of the System Dynamics Society, Boston, MA, USA, 17–21 July.Google Scholar
- Careem, M., De Silva, C., De Silva, R., Raschid, L. and Weerawarana, S. (2006) ‘Sahana: Overview of a disaster management system’, paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Information and Automation (ICIA), Colombo, Sri Lanka, 15–17 December.Google Scholar
- Chatfield, A.T. and Brajawidagda, U. (2012) ‘Twitter tsunami early warning network: A social network analysis of Twitter information flows’, paper presented at the 23rd Australasian Conference on Information Systems (ACIS), Geelong, Australia, 3–5 December.Google Scholar
- Chatfield, A.T. and Brajawidagda, U. (2013) ‘Twitter early tsunami warning system: A case study of Indonesia’s disaster management agencies’, paper presented at the 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Wailea, Maui, HI, USA, 7–10 January.Google Scholar
- Comes, T., Wijngaards, N. and Schultmann, F. (2012) ‘Efficient scenario updating in emergency management’, paper presented at the 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Management and Response (ISCRAM), Vancouver, Canada, 22–25 April.Google Scholar
- Domres, B., Schauwecker, H.H., Rohrmann, K., Roller, G., Maier, G.W. and Manger A. (2000) ‘The German approach to emergency/disaster management’, Medical Archives 54(4): 201–203.Google Scholar
- Donahue, J.D. and Zeckhauser, R.F. (2006) ‘Sharing the watch: Public–private collaboration in infrastructure security’, in P.E. Auerswald, L.M. Branscomb, T.M. La Porte and E.O. Michel-Kerjan (eds) Seeds of Disaster, Roots of Response: How Private Action Can Reduce Public Vulnerability, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp 429–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Eismann, C. (2014) ‘Trends in critical infrastructure protection in Germany’, Transactions of the VŠB: Technical University of Ostrava, Safety Engineering Series 9(2): 26–31.Google Scholar
- Federal Ministry of the Interior (ed) (2008) Protecting Critical Infrastructures – Risk and Crisis Management: A Guide for Companies and Government Authorities, from https://www.bbk.bund.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/BBK/DE/Publikationen/PublikationenKritis/Protecting-Critical-Infrastructures.pdf?__blob=publicationFile, accessed 16 November 2016.
- Federal Ministry of the Interior (ed) (2009) National Strategy for Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP Strategy), from http://www.bmi.bund.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/EN/Broschueren/2009/kritis_englisch.pdf?__blob=publicationFile, accessed 16 November 2016.
- Federal Office for Information Security (2004) ‘Critical infrastructure protection: Survey of world-wide activities’, BSI Kritis, 4/2004, from https://www.bsi.bund.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/EN/BSI/Kritis/paper_studie_en_pdf.pdf?__blob=publicationFile, accessed 18 August 2017.
- Fortier, S.C. and Dokas, I.M. (2008) ‘Setting the specification framework of an early warning system using IDEF0 and information modeling’, paper presented at the 5th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Management and Response (ISCRAM), Washington, DC, USA, 4–7 May.Google Scholar
- Galton, A. and Worboys, M. (2011) ‘An ontology of information for emergency management’, paper presented at the 8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Management and Response (ISCRAM), Lisbon, Portugal, 8–11 May.Google Scholar
- Germano, J.H. (2014) Cybersecurity Partnerships: A New Era of Public–Private Collaboration, Working Paper, New York: New York University School of Law.Google Scholar
- Gheorghe, A.V. and Schläpfer, M. (2006) ‘Ubiquity of digitalization and risks of interdependent critical infrastructures’, paper presented at the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), Taipei, Taiwan, 8–11 October.Google Scholar
- Givens, A.D. and Busch, N.E. (2012) ‘Public–private partnerships in homeland security: Opportunities and challenges’, Homeland Security Affairs 8(1): 1–24.Google Scholar
- Givens, A.D. and Busch, N.E. (2013a) ‘Information sharing and public–private partnerships: The impact on homeland security’, The Homeland Security Review 7(2): 123–150.Google Scholar
- Golnaraghi, M., Surminski, S. and Schanz, K.-U. (2016) An Integrated Approach to Managing Extreme Events and Climate Risks: Towards a Concerted Public–Private Approach, Geneva: The Geneva Association, from https://www.genevaassociation.org/media/952146/20160908_ecoben20_final.pdf, accessed 10 May 2017.
- Hopf, C. (2013) ‘Qualitative Interviews – ein Überblick’, in U. Flick, E. Von Kardorff and I. Steinke (eds) Qualitative Forschung: Ein Handbuch, 10. Auflage, Reinbek: Rowohlt, pp 349–360.Google Scholar
- Jennex, M.E. (2004) ‘Emergency response systems: The utility Y2K experience’, Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application 6(3): 85–102.Google Scholar
- Jennex, M.E. (2007) ‘Modeling emergency response systems’, paper presented at the 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA, 3–6 January.Google Scholar
- Johansen, E.B. (2006) ‘Between public and private – Insurance solutions for a changing society’, Nordisk Försäkringstidskrift 87(2): 147–154.Google Scholar
- KPMG International Cooperative (2015) Demystifying the Public Private Partnership Paradigm: The Nexus Between Insurance, Sustainability and Growth, from https://home.kpmg.com/content/dam/kpmg/pdf/2015/09/demystifying-public-private-partnership-paradigm.pdf, accessed 10 May 2017.
- Kreps, G.A. (1983) ‘The organization of disaster response: Core concepts and processes’, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 1(3): 439–465.Google Scholar
- Kuckartz, U. (2016) Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse: Methoden, Praxis, Computerunterstützung, 3. Auflage, Weinheim: Beltz Juventa.Google Scholar
- Kunreuther, H.C. and Michel-Kerjan, E.O. (2007) ‘Climate change, insurability of large-scale disasters, and the emerging liability challenge’, University of Pennsylvania Law Review 155(6): 1795–1842.Google Scholar
- LeClaire, R.J. and O’Reilly, G. (2005) ‘Leveraging a high fidelity switched network model to inform system dynamics model of the telecommunications infrastructure’, paper presented at the 23rd International Conference of the System Dynamics Society, Boston, MA, USA, 17–21 July.Google Scholar
- Lieberman, M.B. and Montgomery, D.B. (1991) ‘Strategy of market entry: To pioneer or follow?’, in H.E. Glass (ed) Handbook of Business Strategy, 2nd edn, New York: Warren, Gorham and Lamont, pp 2–29.Google Scholar
- Masera, M., Stefanini, A. and Dondossola, G. (2006) ‘The security of information and communication systems and the E+I Paradigm’, in A.V. Gheorghe, M. Masera, M.P.C. Weijnen and L.J. De Vries (eds) Critical Infrastructure at Risk: Securing the European Electric Power System, Dordrecht: Springer, pp 85–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mayring, P. (2015) Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse: Grundlagen und Techniken, 12. Auflage, Weinheim: Beltz Juventa.Google Scholar
- Meissen, U. and Voisard, A. (2008) ‘Increasing the effectiveness of early warning via context-aware alerting’, paper presented at the 5th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Management and Response (ISCRAM), Washington, DC, USA, 4–7 May.Google Scholar
- Pearson, C.M. and Clair, J.A. (1998) ‘Reframing crisis management’, The Academy of Management Review 23(1): 59–76.Google Scholar
- Pearson, C.M. and Mitroff, I.I. (1993) ‘From crisis prone to crisis prepared: A framework for crisis management’, The Academy of Management Executive 7(1): 48–59.Google Scholar
- Perry, R.W. (1991) ‘Managing disaster response operations’, in T.E. Drabek and G.J. Hoetmer (eds) Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government, Washington, DC: International City Management Association, pp 201–223.Google Scholar
- Prieto, D.B. (2006) ‘Information sharing with the private sector: History, challenges, innovation, and prospects’, in P.E. Auerswald, L.M. Branscomb, T.M. La Porte and E.O. Michel-Kerjan (eds) Seeds of Disaster, Roots of Response: How Private Action Can Reduce Public Vulnerability, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp 404–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rummukainen, L., Oksama, L., Timonen, J. and Vankka, J. (2014) ‘Visualizing common operating picture of critical infrastructure’, in B.D. Broome, D.L. Hall and J. Llinas (eds) Next-Generation Analyst II—Proceedings Volume 9122, SPIE Sensing Technology + Applications Conference, 5–9 May 2014, Baltimore, MD: SPIE, pp 912208-1–912208-15.Google Scholar
- Schnell, R., Hill, P.B. and Esser, E. (2011) Methoden der empirischen Sozialforschung, 9. Auflage, München: Oldenbourg.Google Scholar
- Stamber, K.L., Brown, T.J., Pless, D.J. and Berscheid, A. (2013) ‘Modeling and simulation for homeland security’, paper presented at the 20th International Congress on Modelling and Simulation (MODSIM), Adelaide, Australia, 1–6 December.Google Scholar
- Starbird, K. and Palen, L. (2010) ‘Pass it on?: Retweeting in mass emergency’, paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Management and Response (ISCRAM), Seattle, WA, USA, 2–5 May.Google Scholar
- Turoff, M., Chumer, M., Van de Walle, B. and Yao, X. (2004) ‘The design of a dynamic emergency response management information system (DERMIS)’, Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application 5(4): 1–35.Google Scholar
- Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE) (2004) Final Report of the Investigation Committee on the 28 September 2003 Blackout in Italy, from https://www.entsoe.eu/fileadmin/user_upload/_library/publications/ce/otherreports/20040427_UCTE_IC_Final_report.pdf, accessed 16 November 2016.
- Urban, R. (2008) ‘New approach on the field of the civil protection’, Academic and Applied Research in Military and Public Management Science 7(2): 295–300.Google Scholar
- U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force (2004) Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United States and Canada: Causes and Recommendations, from http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/oeprod/DocumentsandMedia/BlackoutFinal-Web.pdf, accessed 16 November 2016.
- U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) Infrastructure Security and Energy Restoration (2013) Insurance as a Risk Management Instrument for Energy Infrastructure Security and Resilience, from https://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/03/f0/03282013_Final_Insurance_EnergyInfrastructure.pdf, accessed 10 May 2017.
- Walker, G., Whittle, R., Medd, W. and Watson, N. (2010) Risk Governance and Natural Hazards, CapHaz-Net WP2 Report, Lancaster: Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, from http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/49475/1/WP2_final.pdf, accessed 10 May 2017.
- Yang, L., Prasanna, R. and King, M. (2009) ‘On-site information systems design for emergency first responders’, Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application 10(1): 5–27.Google Scholar