Advertisement

Security Journal

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 119–136 | Cite as

Police moonlighting and gender difference: exploring paid detail security for men and women officers in North American police departments

  • Randy K. LippertEmail author
  • Kevin Walby
  • Mathew Zaia
Original Article

Abstract

Paid detail public police work is underexplored in criminal justice and criminological research. As a result, gender disparities for women police officers in paid detail policing, entailing the private employment of public police for services that often resemble stationary guarding, have not been investigated. Based on analysis of police paid detail records and interviews with police and users of paid detail across the United States and Canada, we investigate the significance of paid detail for police officer pay and differences by gender. We discuss gender proportions in police departments and compare them to gender proportions in paid detail assignments. Our analysis reveals all nine police departments selected as case studies had far more men than women officers. This dominance was also evidenced by the fact that most assignments were taken up by men in all nine departments. Moreover, albeit the differences were usually modest, in seven of nine departments, the proportion of assignments taken up by men was greater than the proportion of men in the department. After reflecting on explanations for why this disparity exists, we conclude with recommendations for policy reform, and directions for future research.

Keywords

Paid detail Public policing Gender Security Difference Policy 

References

  1. Abramovitz, M. 2017. Regulating the Lives of Women: Social Welfare Policy from Colonial Times to the Present. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Acker, J. 1990. Hierarchies, Jobs, Bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organizations. Gender & Society 4 (2): 139–158.Google Scholar
  3. Britton, D. 1997. Gendered Organizational Logic: Policy and Practice in Men’s and Women’s Prisons. Gender & Society 11 (6): 796–818.Google Scholar
  4. Britton, D. 2000. The Epistemology of the Gendered Organization. Gender & Society 14 (3): 418–434.Google Scholar
  5. Chan, J., S. Doran, and C. Marel. 2010. Doing and Undoing Gender in Policing. Theoretical Criminology 14 (4): 425–446.Google Scholar
  6. City of Boston. 1996. Paid Details in the Boston Police Department. Boston, MA: City of Boston Finance Commission.Google Scholar
  7. City of Seattle. 2017. 2017 Salary Schedule and Compensation Plan. https://www.seattle.gov/personnel/resources/pubs/2017salaryschedule.pdf.
  8. Cordner, G., and A. Cordner. 2011. Stuck on a Plateau? Obstacles to Recruitment, Selection, and Retention of Women Police. Police Quarterly 14 (3): 207–226.Google Scholar
  9. Corsianos, M. 2003. Women Detectives and Perceptions of ‘Oppressive’ Experiences. Critical Criminology 12 (1): 67–85.Google Scholar
  10. Dantzker, M., and B. Kubin. 1998. Job Satisfaction: The Gender Perspective Among Police Officers. American Journal of Criminal Justice 23 (1): 19–31.Google Scholar
  11. Eterno, J.A. 2007. Gender and Policing: Do Women Accept Legal Restrictions more than Their Male Counterparts? Women & Criminal Justice 18 (1/2): 49–78.Google Scholar
  12. Felkenes, G.T., and J. Schroedel. 1993. A Case Study of Minority Women in Policing. Women and Criminal Justice 4 (2): 65–89.Google Scholar
  13. Garcia, V. 2003. Difference’ in the Policing Department: Women, Policing, and ‘Doing Gender. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 19 (3): 330–344.Google Scholar
  14. Giles, R. 2017. Publicly Funded Private Security: A Critical Examination of Georgia Law Pertaining to the Private Employment of Off-Duty Police Officers. Georgia Law Review 51: 879–915.Google Scholar
  15. Grant, M. 1977. Relationship of Moonlighting to Job Dissatisfaction in Police Officers. Journal of Police Science and Administration 5 (2): 193–196.Google Scholar
  16. Guajardo, S.A. 2015. New York City Police Department Downsizing and Its Impact on Female Officer Employment. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice 13 (4): 255–282.Google Scholar
  17. Guajardo, S.A. 2016. Women in Policing: A Longitudinal Assessment of Female Officers in Supervisory Positions in the New York City Police Department. Women & Criminal Justice 26 (1): 20–36.Google Scholar
  18. Jenks, D. 2009. Police Corruption or Police Productivity? Officers Perceptions of Moonlighting in U.S. Agencies. Critical Issues in Justice and Politics 2 (2): 87–104.Google Scholar
  19. Jordan, W., L. Fridell, D. Faggiani, and B. Kubu. 2009. Attracting Females and Racial/Ethnic Minorities to Law Enforcement. Journal of Criminal Justice 37 (4): 333–341.Google Scholar
  20. Kingshott, B. 2009. Women in Policing: Changing the Organizational Culture by Adopting a Feminist Perspective on Leadership. Criminal Justice Studies 22 (1): 49–72.Google Scholar
  21. Kingshott, B. 2013. Revisiting Gender Issues: Continuing Police Reform. Criminal Justice Studies 26 (3): 366–392.Google Scholar
  22. Krimmel, J., and P. Gormley. 2003. Tokenism and Job Satisfaction for Policewomen. American Journal of Criminal Justice 28 (1): 73–88.Google Scholar
  23. Kringen, A.L. 2014. Scholarship on Women and Policing: Trends and Policy Implications. Feminist Criminology 9 (4): 367–381.Google Scholar
  24. Kurtz, D. 2012. Roll Call and the Second Shift: The Influences of Gender and Family on Police Stress. Police Practice and Research 13 (1): 71–86.Google Scholar
  25. Leger, K. 1997. Public Perceptions of Female Police Officers on Patrol. American Journal of Criminal Justice 21 (2): 231–249.Google Scholar
  26. Lippert, R.K., and K. Walby. 2013. Police Moonlighting Revisited: The Case of ‘Pay Duty’ in Three Canadian Police Services. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 7 (4): 370–378.Google Scholar
  27. Lippert, R.K., and K. Walby. 2014. Marketization, Knowledge Work, and ‘Users Pay’ Policing in Canada. British Journal of Criminology 54 (2): 260–280.Google Scholar
  28. Lippert, R.K., K. Walby, and P. Taylor. 2016. Capital Exchanges, Security Networks, and ‘User Pays’ Policing. Criminology, Criminal Justice, Law & Society 17 (2): 18–33.Google Scholar
  29. Luscombe, A., K. Walby, and R.K. Lippert. 2017. Online Readers’ Comments as Popular Texts: Public Opinions of Paid Duty Policing in Canada. Canadian Journal of Communication 42 (5): 745–765.Google Scholar
  30. Lyle, P. 2015. Moonlighting Police: Policies that Regulate Secondary Employment—Possible Stress, Job Burnout and Liability Issues. Unpublished Paper. www.academia.edu.
  31. Martin, C. 1996. The Impact of Equal Opportunities Policies on the Day-to-Day Experiences of Women Police Constables. British Journal of Criminology 36 (4): 510–528.Google Scholar
  32. Martin, S.E. 1991. The Effectiveness of Affirmative Action: The Case of Women in Policing. Justice Quarterly 8 (4): 489–504.Google Scholar
  33. Martin, S.E. 1994. ‘Outside Within’ the Station House: The Impact of Race and Gender on Black Women Police. Social Problems 41 (3): 383–400.Google Scholar
  34. Martin, S.E. 2004. The Interactive Effects of Race and Sex on Women Police Officers. In The Criminal Justice System and Women, ed. B.R. Price and N.J. Sokoloff, 527–542. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  35. McCarthy, D.J. 2013. Gendering ‘Soft’ Policing: Multi-agency Working, Female Cops, and the Fluidities of Police culture/s. Policing & Society 23 (2): 261–278.Google Scholar
  36. Palmiotto, M., M. Birzer, and J. Smith-Mahdi. 2005. An Analysis of Discrimination between African-American and Women Police Officers: Are There Differences? Similarities? Criminal Justice Studies 18 (4): 347–364.Google Scholar
  37. Poteyeva, M., and I. Sun. 2009. Gender Difference in Police Officers’ Attitudes: Assessing Current Empirical Evidence. Journal of Criminal Justice 37 (5): 512–522.Google Scholar
  38. Potts, L.W. 1983. Equal Employment Opportunity and Female Employment in Police Agencies. Journal of Criminal Justice 11 (6): 505–523.Google Scholar
  39. Powell, B. 2015. Half of Toronto Police Workforce Earned $100,000 Last Year. Toronto Star. March 16th.Google Scholar
  40. Prokos, A., and I. Padavic. 2002. ‘There Oughta Be a Law Against Bitches’: Masculinity Lessons in Police Academy Training. Gender, Work & Organization 9 (4): 439–459.Google Scholar
  41. Rabe-Hemp, C. 2008. Female Officers and the Ethic of Care: Does Officer Gender Impact Police Behaviors? Journal of Criminal Justice 36 (5): 426–434.Google Scholar
  42. Rabe-Hemp, C. 2011. Female Forces: Beauty, Brains and a Badge. Feminist Criminology 6 (2): 132–155.Google Scholar
  43. Reaves, B. 2015. Local Police Departments, 2013: Personnel, Policies, and Practices. Washington: Bureau of Justice Statistics. https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/lpd13ppp.pdf.
  44. Reiss, A. 1988. Private Employment of Public Police. Washington, DC: U.S. National Inst. of Justice.Google Scholar
  45. Ryan, G., and R. Bernard. 2003. Techniques to Identify Themes. Field Methods 15 (1): 85–109.Google Scholar
  46. Seagram, B.C., and S. Stark. 1992. Women in Canadian Urban Policing: Why Are They Leaving?’. Police Chief 59 (10): 120–128.Google Scholar
  47. Seattle Police Department. 2014. 5.120—Secondary Employment. http://www.seattle.gov/police-manual/title-5—employee-conduct/5120—secondary-employment.
  48. Senjo, S. 2011. Dangerous Fatigue Conditions: A Study of Police Work and Law Enforcement Administration. Police Practice and Research 12 (3): 235–252.Google Scholar
  49. Schulze, C. 2010. Institutionalized Masculinity in US Police Departments: How Maternity Leave Policies (or Lack thereof) Affect Women in Policing. Criminal Justice Studies 23 (2): 177–193.Google Scholar
  50. Schulze, C. 2011. Family Leave and Law Enforcement: A Survey of Parents in U.S. Police Departments. Critical Criminology 19 (2): 137–153.Google Scholar
  51. Schulze, C. 2014. P.I. Jane: Predictors of Women’s Representation in Private Investigations. Security Journal 27 (4): 361–373.Google Scholar
  52. Shelley, T.O., M.S. Morabito, and J. Tobin-Gurley. 2011. Gendered Institutions and Gender Roles: Understanding the Experiences of Women in Policing. Criminal Justice Studies 24 (4): 351–367.Google Scholar
  53. Statistics Canada. 2016. Police resources in Canada, 2015. https://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2016001/article/14323-eng.htm.
  54. Stoughton, S. 2017. Moonlighting: The Private Employment of Off-Duty Officers. Indiana Law Review 5: 1847–1900.Google Scholar
  55. Valverde, M., and M. Cirak. 2003. Governing Bodies, Creating Gay Spaces. Policing and Security Issues in ‘Gay’ Downtown Toronto. British Journal of Criminology 43 (1): 102–121.Google Scholar
  56. Walby, K., and R.K. Lippert. 2015. Municipal Corporate Security in International Context. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. White, A. 2011. The New Political Economy of Private Security. Theoretical Criminology 16 (1): 85–101.Google Scholar
  58. Wilson, J.Q., and G. Kelling. 1982. Broken Windows. Atlantic Monthly 249 (3): 29–38.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Limited 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and CriminologyUniversity of WindsorWindsorCanada
  2. 2.Department of Criminal JusticeUniversity of WinnipegWinnipegCanada
  3. 3.Faculty of LawUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations