Advertisement

The role of firearms in intimate partner violence: policy and research considerations

  • Alexandria Goodyear
  • Michael Rodriguez
  • Deborah GlikEmail author
Viewpoint

Abstract

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major threat to women’s safety and well-being worldwide. Firearms heighten this threat by increasing the morbidity and mortality of IPV. This paper focuses on the United States, a nation with high rates of IPV alongside high rates of gun ownership. The United States has implemented several policy approaches to reduce the harmful role that firearms play in IPV by limiting access to firearms for IPV offenders. One such law prohibits persons under Domestic Violence Restraining Orders (DVROs) from purchasing or possessing firearms or ammunition. Although DVRO firearm prohibitions can reduce the risk of firearm-related injury and homicide associated with IPV, implementation and enforcement of these laws at regional and local levels is challenging and variable. We discuss implications for DVRO research, policy, and practice as part of a comprehensive approach to prevent and reduce firearm-related IPV.

Keywords

Firearms Intimate partner violence Homicide Policy 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention. Preventing intimate partner violence. 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/ipv-factsheet.pdf.
  2. 2.
    Devries KM, Mak JYT, Garcia-Moreno C, Petzold M, Child JC, Falder G, Lim S, Bacchus LJ, Engell RE, Rosenfeld L, Pallitto C, Vos T, Abrahams N, Watts CH. The global prevalence of intimate partner violence against women. Science. 2013;340(6140):1527–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bonomi AE, Thompson RS, Anderson M, Reid RJ, Carrell D, Dimer JA, Rivara FP. Intimate partner violence and women’s physical, mental, and social functioning. Am J Prev Med. 2006;30(6):458–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Coker AL, Davis KE, Arias I, Desai S, Sanderson M, Brandt HM, Smith PH. Physical and mental health effects of intimate partner violence for men and women. Am J Prev Med. 2002;23(4):260–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    World Health Organization. Global and regional estimates of violence against women: prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. 2013. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/85239/9789241564625_eng.pdf?sequence=1.
  6. 6.
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Global study on homicide: gender-related killing of women and girls. 2018. https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/GSH2018/GSH18_Gender-related_killing_of_women_and_girls.pdf.
  7. 7.
    McEvoy C, Hideg G. Global Violent Deaths 2017. Small arms survey. 2017. http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/U-Reports/SAS-Report-GVD2017.pdf.
  8. 8.
    Zeoli AM, Malinski R, Turchan B. Risks and targeted interventions: firearms in intimate partner violence. Epidemiol Rev. 2016;38(1):125–39.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Amnesty International. Gun violence—key facts. https://www.amnesty.org/en/what-we-do/arms-control/gun-violence/.
  10. 10.
    Hemenway D, Shinoda-Tagawa T, Miller M. Firearm availability and female homicide victimization rates among 25 populous high-income countries. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2002;57(2):100–4.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gramlich J. 7 Facts About Guns in the U.S. Pew Research Center. 2018. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/12/27/facts-about-guns-in-united-states/.
  12. 12.
    Sorenson SB. Guns in intimate partner violence: comparing incidents by type of weapon. J Womens Health. 2017;26(3):249–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bailey JE, Kellermann AL, Somes GW, Banton JG, Rivara FP, Rushforth NP. Risk factors for violent death of women in the home. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157(7):777–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zeoli AM, Webster DW. Effects of domestic violence policies, alcohol taxes and police staffing levels on intimate partner homicide in large US cities. Inj Prev. 2010;16(2):90–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vigdor ER, Mercy JA. Do laws restricting access to firearms by domestic violence offenders prevent intimate partner homicide? Eval Rev. 2006;30(3):313–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Diez C, Kurland RP, Rothman EF, Bair-Merritt M, Fleegler E, Xuan Z, Galea S, Ross CS, Kalesan B, Goss KA, Siegel M. State intimate partner violence-related firearm laws and intimate partner homicide rates in the United States, 1991 to 2015. Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(8):536–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zeoli AM, McCourt A, Buggs S, Frattaroli S, Lilley D, Webster DW. Analysis of the strength of legal firearms restrictions for perpetrators of domestic violence and their associations with intimate partner homicide. Am J Epidemiol. 2018;187(7):1449–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sacco LN. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA): Historical overview, funding, and reauthorization. Congressional research service. 2019. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R45410.pdf.
  19. 19.
    Giffords Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence. Domestic violence & firearms. https://lawcenter.giffords.org/gun-laws/policy-areas/who-can-have-a- gun/domestic-violence-firearms/.
  20. 20.
    Zeoli AM, Frattaroli S, Roskam K, Herrera AK. Removing firearms from those prohibited from possession by domestic violence restraining orders: a survey and analysis of state laws. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2017;1:1524838017692384.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sorenson SB, Shen H. Restraining orders in california: a look at statewide data. Violence Women. 2005;11(7):912–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vittes KA, Webster DW, Frattaroli S, Claire BE, Wintemute GJ. Removing guns from batterers: findings from a pilot survey of domestic violence restraining order recipients in California. Violence Women. 2013;19(5):602–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Webster DW, Wintemute GJ. Effects of policies designed to keep firearms from high-risk individuals. Annu Rev Public Health. 2015;36:21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wintemute GJ, Frattaroli S, Claire BE, Vittes KA, Webster DW. Identifying armed respondents to domestic violence restraining orders and recovering their firearms: process evaluation of an initiative in California. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(2):e113–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Barry CL, Webster DW, Stone E, Crifasi CK, Vernick JS, McGinty EE. Public support for gun violence prevention policies among gun owners and non-gun owners in 2017. Am J Public Health. 2018;108(7):878–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vittes KA, Sorenson SB. Keeping guns out of the hands of abusers: handgun purchases and restraining orders. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(5):828–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Giffords Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence. California. https://lawcenter.giffords.org/gun-laws/state-law/California/.
  28. 28.
    Niolon PH, Kearns M, Dills J, Rambo K, Irving S, Armstead TL, Gilbert L. Preventing intimate partner violence across the lifespan: a technical package of programs, policies, and practices. national center for injury prevention and control. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Everytown for Gun Safety. Mass shootings in the United States: 2009–2016. 2017. https://everytownresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Analysis_of_Mass_Shooting_062117.pdf.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Limited 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandria Goodyear
    • 1
  • Michael Rodriguez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Deborah Glik
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Community Health SciencesUCLA Fielding School of Public HealthLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Family MedicineUCLA David Geffen School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations