Advertisement

The economics of identity: is China the new ‘Japan problem’ for the United States?

  • Nicola NymalmEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

The ‘rise of China’ ranks among the most widely addressed contemporary topics in the field of International Relations. The majority of studies focuses on questions of ‘power shifts’ from West to East—in particular from the US to China—commonly premised on assessments of China’s rapid economic growth. However, it is rarely taken into consideration that the last comparable debate was conducted only a few decades ago, when Japan was proclaimed the new ‘Number One’. The neglect is even more remarkable given the striking similarities in the US discourses on first Japan and then China as not only an ‘unfair economic player’, but also a ‘threat’ to US global preeminence. In turn, the similarities seem puzzling given the differences in the bilateral relationship between the US and Japan in the past, and the US and China more recently. This article analyses parallels in these discourses by taking a view that goes beyond the economy as material capabilities and interests common in research on ‘rising powers’. Instead, focusing on the role of identity, it contends that the similarities in articulating Japan and China as threats stem from them not adhering to the US model of liberal democratic capitalism, while being economically successful on their own terms.

Keywords

China Discourse Identity Japan Power shifts US 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Earlier versions of this article were presented at the American Political Science Association’s (APSA) annual meeting in San Francisco in September 2015 and the Swedish Political Science Association’s (SWEPSA) annual conference at the Swedish Defence University in Stockholm in October 2015. I am grateful for the comments and feedback received on both occasions, as well as later on from Stefan Borg, Steve Chan, Karl Gustafsson, Linus Hagström, Astrid Nordin, Stefanie Ortmann, and Oliver Turner. My gratitude also extends to the three anonymous reviewers for JIRD, while all shortcomings remain my sole responsibility. The article builds on my PhD dissertation From ‘Japan problem’ to ‘China threat’? Dissecting the Economic Discourses on Japan (19801995) and China (19952008) in the United States Congress (2015, Kiel University) for which I received funding from the Finnish Cultural Foundation (SKR).

References

  1. Abdelal, Rawi, Mark Blyth, and Craig Parsons. 2010. Introduction. In Constructing the International Economy, ed. Rawi Abdelal, Mark Blyth, and Craig Parsons. New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Agnew, John A. 2003. Geopolitics: Re-Visioning World Politics. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Berger, Thomas U. 1993. From Sword to Chrysanthemum: Japan’s Culture of Anti-militarism. International Security 17 (4): 119–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bergsten, C.Fred, Charles Freeman, Nicholas R. Lardy, and Derek J. Mitchell. 2008. China’s Rise: Challenges and Opportunities. Washington: Peterson Institute for International Economics.Google Scholar
  5. Best, Jaqueline, and Matthew Patterson. 2010. Introduction: Understanding Cultural Political Economy. In Cultural Political Economy, ed. Jaqueline Best, and Matthew Patterson, 1–26. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blackwill, Robert D., and Ashley J. Tellis. 2015. Revising US Grand Strategy Toward China, Special Report. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.Google Scholar
  7. Blanchard, Eric M. 2012. Constituting China: The Role of Metaphor in the Discourses of Early Sino-American Relations. Journal of International Relations and Development 16 (2): 177–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bown, Chad P., and Rachel McCulloch. 2009. U.S.-Japan and U.S.-China Trade Conflict: Export Growth, Reciprocity, and the International Trading System. Journal of Asian Economics 20: 669–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Búzás, Zoltan I. 2012. Race and international politics: how racial prejudice can shape discord and cooperation among great powers, PhD dissertation (unpublished). USA: Ohio State University.Google Scholar
  10. Campbell, David. 1994. Foreign policy and identity: Japanese “other”/American “self”. In The Global Economy as Political Space, ed. Stephen Rosow, Naeem Inayatullah, and Mark Rupert, 147–169. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  11. Campbell, David. 1998. Writing Security. United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity, Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Chan, Steve. 2014. So what about a power shift? Caveat emptor. Asian Perspective 38 (3): 363–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Christensen, Thomas J., Alistair I. Johnston, and Robert S. Ross. 2006. Conclusions and future directions. In New Directions in the Study of China’s Foreign Policy, ed. Alistair I. Johnston, and Robert S. Ross, 379–421. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Cohen, Stephen D., Joel R. Paul, and Robert A. Blecker. 1996. Fundamentals of US Foreign Trade Policy: Economics, Politics, Laws, and Issues. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  15. Cox, Michael. 2012. Power Shifts, Economic Change and the Decline of the West? International Relations 26 (4): 369–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cox, R.W. 1981. Social Forces, States and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory. . Millennium—Journal of International Studies 10 (2): 126–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. CR-1985-0225, Replica of Original Proceedings, Congressional Record Bound, 25 February, 3341–3390. http://congressional.proquest.com/congressional/docview/t19.d20.cr-1985-0225?accountid=8285. Accessed 29 Jan 2014.
  18. CR-1985-0306, Replica of Original Proceedings, Congressional Record Bound, 6 March, 4671–4720. http://congressional.proquest.com/congressional/docview/t19.d20.cr-1985-0306?accountid=8285. Accessed 21 Jan 2014.
  19. CR-1985-0328, Replica of Original Proceedings, Congressional Record Bound, 28 March 6570–6619. http://congressional.proquest.com/congressional/docview/t19.d20.cr-1985-0328?accountid=8285. Accessed 27 Jan 2014.
  20. CR-1985-0328, Replica of Original Proceedings, Congressional Record Bound, 28 March, 6620–6669. http://congressional.proquest.com/congressional/docview/t19.d20.cr-1985-0328?accountid=8285. Accessed 27 Jan 2014.
  21. CR-1985-0402, Replica of Original Proceedings, Congressional Record Bound, 2 April, 7209–7251. http://congressional.proquest.com/congressional/docview/t19.d20.cr-1985-0402?accountid=8285. Accessed 22 Jan 2014.
  22. CR-1985-0404, Replica of Original Proceedings, Congressional Record Bound, 4 April, 7574–7623. http://congressional.proquest.com/congressional/docview/t19.d20.cr-1985-0404?accountid=8285. Accessed 22 Jan 2014.
  23. CR-1985-0404, Replica of Original Proceedings, Congressional Record Bound, 4 April, 7674–7723. http://congressional.proquest.com/congressional/docview/t19.d20.cr-1985-0404?accountid=8285. Accessed 22 Jan 2014.
  24. CR-1985-0416, Replica of Original Proceedings, Congressional Record Bound, 16 April, 8023–8072. http://congressional.proquest.com/congressional/docview/t19.d20.cr-1985-0416?accountid=8285. Accessed 17 Jan 2014.
  25. CR-1985-0514, Replica of Original Proceedings, Congressional Record Bound, 14 May, 11700–11749. http://congressional.proquest.com/congressional/docview/t19.d20.cr-1985-0514?accountid=8285. Accessed 6 Jan 2014.
  26. Curtis, Gerald L. 2000. U.S. Policy Toward Japan From Nixon to Clinton: an Assessment. In New Perspectives on U.S-Japan Relations, ed. Gerald L. Curtis, 1–39. Tokyo: Japan Centre for International Exchange.Google Scholar
  27. De Goede, Marieke. 2006. Introduction: International Political Economy and the Promises of Poststructuralism. In International Political Economy and Poststructural Politics, ed. Marieke De Goede, 2–20. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Diaz-Bone, Rainer, and Werner Schneider. 2010. Qualitative Datenanalysesoftware in der Sozialwissenschaftlichen Diskursanalyse—zwei Praxisbeispiele [Qualitative Data-Analysis Software in Social Science Discourse Analysis—Two Practical Examples]. In Handbuch Sozialwissenschaftliche Diskursanalyse, Bd 2: Forschungspraxis, ed. Rainer Keller, 491–529. Interdisziplinäre Diskursforschung, Wiesbaden: VS, Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dorogi, Tamas L. 2001. Tainted Perceptions: Liberal-Democracy and American Popular Images of China. Lanham: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  30. Doty, Roxanne L. 1993. Foreign Policy as Social Construction: A Post-positivist Analysis of U.S. Counterinsurgency Policy in the Philippines. International Studies Quarterly 37 (3): 297–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Extensions of Remarks (2005) China a Growing Threat—Hon. Frank R. Wolf, June 30. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r109:E30JN5-0015. Accessed 12 June 2014.
  32. Extensions of Remarks (1997) United States-China relations the case for engagementHon. Lee H. Hamilton, 16 June. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r105:E16JN7-9. Accessed 3 June 2014.
  33. Fallows, James, Chalmers Johnson, Clyde Prestowitz, et al. 1990. Beyond Japan Bashing. U.S. News and World Report 108 (18): 54–56.Google Scholar
  34. Friedberg, Aaron L. 2005. The Future of Us-china Relations: Is Conflict Inevitable? International Security 30 (2): 7–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Friedberg, Aaron L. 2011. A Contest for Supremacy: China, America, and the Struggle for Mastery in Asia. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  36. Friedman, Edward. 2011. Power Transition Theory: A Challenge to The Peaceful Rise of World Power China. In China’s Rise: Threat or Opportunity?, ed. Howarth Yee, 11–32. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Fukuyama, Francis. 1989. The End of History? National Interest 16: 3–18.Google Scholar
  38. Gagliano, Joseph A. 2014. Congressional Policymaking in Sino-U.S. Relations During the Post-Cold War Era. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gat, Azar. 2007. The Return of Authoritarian Great Powers. Foreign Affairs 86 (4): 59–69.Google Scholar
  40. Gilpin, Robert. 1987. The Political Economy of International Relations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gilpin, Robert. 1989. Where Does Japan Fit In? Millennium—Journal of International Studies 18 (3): 329–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gilpin, Robert. 2003. Sources of American-Japanese Economic Conflict. In International Relations Theory and the Asia-Pacific, ed. G.J. Ikenberry, and Michael Mastanduno, 299–322. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Glynos, Jason, and David Howarth. 2007. Logics of Critical Explanation in Social and Political Theory. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hagström, Linus, and Björn Jerdén. 2014. East Asia’s Power Shift: The Flaws and Hazards of The Debate And How To Avoid Them. Asian Perspective 38 (3): 337–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Halper, Stefan A. 2010. The Beijing Consensus. How China’s Authoritarian Model Will Dominate the Twenty-First Century. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  46. Hayes, Jarrod. 2013. Constructing National Security: U.S. Relations with India and China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Herschinger, Eva, and Judith Renner (eds.). 2014. Diskursforschung in Den Internationalen Beziehungen [Discourse Studies in International Relations]. Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  48. House of Representatives. 1989a. Increased Japanese investment in United States, 31 October. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r101:H31OC9-974. Accessed 19 June 2014.
  49. House of Representatives. 1989b. The lack of Japanese consumer culture, 17 July. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r101:H17JY9-589. Accessed 20 June 2014.
  50. House of Representatives. 1994a. Disapproving Most-Favored-Nation treatment for China, 9 August. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r103:H09AU4-230. Accessed 20 May 2014.
  51. House of Representatives. 1994b. Most-Favored-Nation Status for China should be denied, 21 March. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r103:H21MR4-1536. Accessed 22 May 2014.
  52. House of Representatives. 1994c. United States-China Act of 1994, 9 August. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r103:H09AU4-436. Accessed 20 May 2014.
  53. House of Representatives. 1997a. Disapproval of Most-Favored-Nation Treatment for China, 24 June. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r105:H24JN7-154. Accessed 26 May 2014.
  54. House of Representatives. 1997b. Remarks on the renewal of China’s MFN trade status with The United States, 24 June. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r105:H24JN7-712. Accessed 26 May 2014.
  55. House of Representatives. 2000. Authorizing extension of Nondiscriminatory Treatment (Normal Trade Relations Treatment) to People’s Republic of China, 24 May. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r106:H24MY0-0011. Accessed 11 June 2014.
  56. House of Representatives. 2001a. Disapproval of Normal Trade Relations treatment to products of People’s Republic of China, 19 July. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r107:H19JY1-0012. Accessed 11 June 2014.
  57. House of Representatives. 2001b. Wake up, America engagement with China has failed, 24 April. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r107:H24AP1-0067. Accessed 12 June 2014.
  58. House of Representatives. 2005a. Expressing the sense of the House that a Chinese state-owned energy company could take action that would threaten the United States, 30 June. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r109:H30JN5-0022. Accessed 12 June 2014.
  59. House of Representatives. 2005b. Providing for consideration of H.R. 3283, United States Trade Rights Enforcement Act, 27 July. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r109:H27JY5-0032. Accessed 12 June 2014.
  60. House of Representatives. 2010. Does Congress Have the Courage to Confront the Economic Threat to America’s future?, 4 February. https://www.congress.gov/congressional-record/2010/02/04/house-section/article/H595-13. Accessed 30 January 2016.
  61. Howarth, David. 2013. Poststructuralism and After: Structure, Subjectivity and Power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hufbauer, Gary C., Yee Wong, and Ketki Sheth. 2006. U.S.-China Trade Disputes: Rising Tide, Rising Stakes. Washington: Institute for International Economics.Google Scholar
  63. Hummel, Hartwig. 2000. Der Neue Westen. Münster: Agenda-Verlag.Google Scholar
  64. Hunt, Michael H. 1987. Ideology and U.S. Foreign Policy. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Ikenberry, G.John. 2013. Liberal Internationalism 3.0: America and the Dilemmas of Liberal World Order. In Liberal World Orders, ed. Tim Dunne, and Trine Flockhart, 23–51. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Jahn, Beate. 2013. Liberal Internationalism: Theory. History, Practice, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Japan Times. 2017. Once tough on Japan, Trump trade rep pick Lighthizer set to go after China, Japan Times Online, 6 April. http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/04/06/business/tough-japan-trump-trade-rep-pick-lighthizer-set-go-china/. Accessed 27 April 2017.
  68. Jeffery, Renee. 2009. Evaluating The China Threat: Power Transition Theory, the Successor-State Image and the Dangers of Historical Analogies. Australian Journal of International Affairs 63: 309–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Jespersen, T.Christopher. 1996. American Images of China, 1931–1949. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Keidel, Alfred. 2011. China’s Exchange Rate Controversy: A Balanced Analysis. Eurasian Geography and Economics 52 (3): 347–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kirshner, Jonathan. 2008. The consequences of China’s economic rise for Sino-U.S. Relations. In China’s Ascent : Power, Security, and the Future of International Politics, ed. Robert S. Ross, and Fenf Zhu, 238–259. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Kolkmann, Michael. 2005. Handelspolitik im US-Kongress. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Krause, Joachim. 2008. ‘Liberaler Imperialismus und imperialer Liberalismus als Erklärungsansätze amerikanischer Außenpolitik’ [Liberal imperialism and imperial liberalism as explanatory approaches towards American foreign policy]. Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik 1: 68–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kunkel, John H. 2003. America’s Trade Policy Towards Japan: Demanding Results. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kupchan, Charles A. 2014. The Normative Foundations of Hegemony and the Coming Challenge to Pax Americana. Security Studies 23 (2): 219–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Laclau, Ernesto. 1990. New Reflections on the Revolution of our Time. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  77. Laclau, Ernesto, and Chantal Mouffe. 2001. Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  78. Layne, Christopher .2014. America’s View of China is Fogged by Liberal Ideas, Financial Times, 13 August. http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/6971dec4-22d3-11e4-8dae-00144feabdc0.html?siteedition=intl#axzz3DQENZfhO. Accessed 15 Sept 2014.
  79. Layne, Christopher. 2012. This Time It’s Real: The End of Unipolarity and the Pax Americana. International Studies Quarterly 56 (1): 203–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Layne, Christopher. 2007. The Peace of Illusions: American Grand Strategy from 1940 to the Present. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Leaver, Richard. 1989. ‘Restructuring in the Global Economy: From Pax Americana to Pax Nipponica?’, Alternatives: Global. Local, Political 14 (4): 429–462.Google Scholar
  82. Levy, Jack S. 2008. Power Transition Theory and the Rise of China. In China’s Ascent: Power, Security, and the Future of International Politics, ed. Robert S. Ross, and Feng Zhu, 11–33. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Lightizer, Robert E. 2010. Stifling the economy, one argument at a time, New York Times, 21 March. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/22/opinion/22lighthizer.html. Accessed 7 July 2010.
  84. Madsen, Richard. 1995. China and the American Dream: A Moral Inquiry. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  85. Mandelbaum, Michael. 2002. The Ideas that Conquered the World Peace, Democracy, and Free Markets in the Twenty-First Century. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  86. Marchart, Oliver. 2007. Post-Foundational Political Thought: Political Difference in Nancy, Lefort, Badiou and Laclau. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McEvoy-Levy, Siobhan. 2001. American Exceptionalism and US Foreign Policy. Public Diplomacy at the End of the Cold War, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Milhaupt, Clyde J. 2012. Chinese Investment: A Case of Déjà vu for the US, EastAsiaForum. http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2012/08/22/a-case-of-deja-vu-for-the-united-states/?format=pdf. Accessed 29 August 2012.
  89. Miyoshi, Masayo. 1991. Off Center Power and Culture Relations Between Japan and the United States. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Morris, Narelle. 2010. Japan-Bashing: Anti-Japanism Since the 1980s. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  91. Morrison, Wayne M., Marc Labonte, and Jonathan E. Sanford. 2006. China’s Currency and Economic Issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc.Google Scholar
  92. Mufson S. 2017. Meet Mr. “Death by China”, Trump’s Inside Man on Trade, Washington Post, 17 February. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/meet-mr-death-by-china-trumps-inside-man-on-trade/2017/02/17/164d7458-ea25-11e6-80c2-30e57e57e05d_story.html. Accessed 27 April 2017.
  93. Nanto, Dick K. 1992. Congress and Trade Policy Toward Japan. CRS Report for Congress, Washington: Congressional Research Service.Google Scholar
  94. New York Times. 2000. ‘Clinton’s Words on China: Trade is the Smart Thing’, 9 March, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2000/03/09/world/clinton-s-words-on-china-trade-is-the-smart-thing.html?scp=2&sq=Clinton+speech+Hopkins+University&st=nyt. Accessed 5 March 2010.
  95. Nymalm, Nicola. 2013. The End of the “Liberal Theory of History”? Dissecting the US Congress. Discourse on China’s Currency Policy’, International Political Sociology 7 (4): 388–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nymalm, Nicola. 2011. ‘Zwischen Liberalisierung und Protektionismus: Wohin steuert die US-Außenhandelspolitik?’ [Between Liberalisation and Protectionism: Which Way For us Foreign Trade Policy?], GIGA Focus Global, Nr. 6/2011, Hamburg: GIGA. http://www.giga-hamburg.de/dl/download.php?d=/content/publikationen/pdf/gf_global_1106.pdf. Accessed 8 March 2012.
  97. Pan, Chengxin. 2012. Knowledge, Desire and Power in Global Politics: Western Representations of China’s Rise. Cheltenham: Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pan, Chengxin. 2014. Rethinking Chinese Power: A Conceptual Corrective to the “Power Shift” Narrative. Asian Perspective 38 (3): 387–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Paulsen, Thomas. 1999. Economic Diplomacy. Opladen: Leske Budrich.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rousseau, David L. 2006. Identifying Threats and Threatening Identities. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Schoppa, Lennart J. 1997. Bargaining with Japan: What American Pressure Can and Cannot Do. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Scherrer, Christoph. 1999. Globalisierung wider Willen? [Globalisation against the will?]. Berlin: Edition Sigma.Google Scholar
  103. Schoppa, Lennart J. 1999. The Social Context in Coercive International Bargaining. International Organization 53 (2): 307–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Senate. 1989a. Disapproving the Export of Technology to Codevelop or Coproduce the FSX Aircraft with Japan, 11 May. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r101:S11MY9-106. Accessed 21 June 2014.
  105. Senate. 1989b. Disapproving the Export of Technology to Codevelop or Coproduce the FSX Aircraft with Japan, 12 May. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r101:S12MY9-112. Accessed 21 June 2014.
  106. Senate. 1989c. Disapproving the Export of Technology to Codevelop or Coproduce the FSX Aircraft with Japan, 16 May. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r101:S16MY9-221. Accessed 18 June 2014.
  107. Senate. 1989d. FSX codevelopment projectveto, 13 September. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r101:S13SE9-207. Accessed 20 June 2014.
  108. Senate. 1989e. Declaration of Economic Independence, 20 October. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r101:S20OC9-260. Accessed 20 June 2014.
  109. Senate. 1989f. The Money Machine, 7 November. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r101:S07NO9-150. Accessed 19 June 2014.
  110. Senate. 1994. The Balance of Trade, 16 March. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r103:S16MR4-53. Accessed 14 May 2014.
  111. Senate. 1995. Political Transition in China, 11 May. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r104:S11MY5-934. Accessed 22 May 2014.
  112. Senate. 1997. Communist China America’s Most Favored Nation, 23 June. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r105:S23JN7-119. Accessed 29 May 2014.
  113. Senate. 2000. To Authorize Extension of Nondiscriminatory Treatment to the People’s Republic of China—Resumed, 19 September. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r106:S19SE0-0006. Accessed 11 June 2014.
  114. Soble, J., and K. Bradsher. 2016. ‘Donald Trump Laces Into Japan With a Trade Tirade From the ‘80s’, New York Times, 7 March. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/08/business/international/unease-after-trump-depicts-tokyo-as-an-economic-rival.html. Accessed 27 April 2017).
  115. Solomon, Ty. 2015. The Politics of Subjectivity in American Foreign Policy Discourses. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Subramanian, Arvind. 2011. Eclipse: Living in the Shadow of China’s Economic Dominance. Washington: Peterson Institute for International Economics.Google Scholar
  117. Thirkell-White, Ben. 2013. Development Models and External Constraints: From the Structural Impediments Initiative to Global Imbalances. In Modern Economic Development in Japan and China, ed. Xiaoming Huang, 145–171. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Turner, Oliver. 2013. “Threatening” China and US Security: The International Politics of Identity. Review of International Studies.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0260210512000599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Uriu, Robert M. 2009. Clinton and Japan: The Impact of Revisionism on U.S. Trade Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wolferen, Van, and G. Karel. 1986. The Japan Problem. Foreign Affairs 65: 288–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Vogel, Ezra F. 1979. Japan as Number One: Lessons for America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Vogel, Ezra F. 1986. ‘East Asia: Pax Nipponica?’, Foreign Affairs. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/print/40804. Accessed 8 Oct 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Weede, Erich. 2010. The Capitalist Peace and the Rise of China: Establishing Global Harmony by Economic Interdependence. International Interactions 36 (2): 206–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wike, Richard. 2017. ‘Americans’ Views of China Improve as Economic Concerns Ease’, Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project. http://www.pewglobal.org/2017/04/04/americans-views-of-china-improve-as-economic-concerns-ease/. Accessed 5 July 2017.
  125. Wullweber, Joscha. 2014. ‘Financial Spaces: Everyday Finance, Discursive Strategies, and Hegemony’, Conference Paper, International Studies Association Annual Convention, 26–29 March, Toronto.Google Scholar
  126. Xie, Tao. 2009. U.S.-China Relations: China Policy on Capitol Hill. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  127. Yee, Herbert S., and Ian Storey. 2002. Introduction. In The China Threat: Perceptions, Myths And Reality, ed. Herbert S. Yee, and Ian Storey, 1–19. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Swedish Institute of International Affairs (UI)StockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations