Luxury brands do not glitter equally for everyone
- 129 Downloads
Previous studies indicate that Westerners and non-Westerners vary in terms of culture and in the degree of focus on objects and the background of advertisings. In this study, the divergences in the perceptions of advertisements for luxury cars are tested by using eye-tracking technology. Going beyond previous studies that considered the time spent on the observations, we use a mixed-methods approach to complement experimental results with survey data. As expected, Europeans pay more attention to the object (i.e., luxury product) in the advertising compared to Asians. In contrast, Asians focus more on the background of the stimuli. Seizing these results, practitioners will be able to design better-targeted advertising for luxury brands based on whether the audience is Asian or Western. The study also shows how an advertiser distracts the attention of the target group from the object (product) by adding focal objects on the sides.
KeywordsEye-tracking Asians and Europeans Luxury brand Perceptions Object and background Mixed-methods research
Funding was provided by University of Kassel.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
- Aliyev F., T., Ürkmez, and R. Wagner. (2017) An extensive glance at luxury research domain 2000–2014: A bibliometric analysis. In Marketing at the Confluence Between Entertainment and Analytics, ed. P. Rossi. Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science. Berlin, Springer, pp. 347–351.Google Scholar
- Arnheim, R. 1970. Visual Thinking. London: Faber.Google Scholar
- Copeland, L., and L. Griggs. 1986. Going International. New York: Plume Books/New American Library.Google Scholar
- Grossmann, I. 2009. Russian Interdependence and Holistic Cognition. Unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan: Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
- Hofstede, G. 1991. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Holmqvist, K., J.M. Nyström, R. Andersson, R. Dewhurst, H. Jarodzka, and J. van de Weijer. 2011. Eye Tracking: A Comprehensive Guide to Methods and Measures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Kelly, D., J.S. Miellet, and R. Caldara. 2010. Culture shapes eye movements for visually homogeneous objects. Frontiers in Psychology 1(6): 1–7.Google Scholar
- Medzheritskaya, I. 2008. Intercultural differences in empathetic-distress: Impact of holistic perception?” Paper presented at the 19th International Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, Bremen, Germany, July 27–31, 2008.Google Scholar
- Naumov, A. 1996. Hofstede’s measurement of Russia: The influence of national culture on business management. Management 1(3): 70–103.Google Scholar
- Reisen, N., U. Hoffrage, and F.W. Mast. 2008. Identifying decision strategies in a consumer choice situation. Judgment and Decision Making 3(8): 641.Google Scholar
- Suleymanov, E., and S. Yusifov. 2014. Problems Encountered during the Transition to Market Economy in Azerbaijan and Solution Attempts. Expert Journal of Economics 2(2): 45–54.Google Scholar
- Telbis, N.M., L. Helgeson, and C. Kingsbury. 2014. International students’ confidence and academic success. Journal of International Students 4(4): 330–341.Google Scholar
- Urkmez, T., and R. Wagner. 2015. Is your perception of “luxury” similar to mine? A concept made of absolute and relative features. Journal of Euromarketing 24(1): 20–40.Google Scholar
- Wagner, U., J. Jamsawang, and A. Zöchling. 2015. Cultural aspects of package designs. Collaboration in Research, EMAC Conference Proceedings, 26–29 May, Leuven: 105.Google Scholar
- Watkins, D. 1996. Hong Kong secondary school learners: A developmental perspective. In The Chinese Learner: Cultural, Psychological and Contextual Influences, ed. D. Watkins and J. Biggs, 107–119. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC), University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar