Advertisement

Fundraising, social media and tourism in American symphony orchestras and opera houses

  • Angela BesanaEmail author
  • Annamaria Esposito
Article

Abstract

The multiple segmentation of audiences and stakeholders is as essential to the survival of American symphony orchestras and opera houses as is revenue diversification. Fundraising remains the key source of revenue, but managers are now exploring new target audiences with the increased use of non-traditional social media. Marketing towards non-traditional audiences such as musical tourists is coming under increasing scrutiny. Using a normal mixture cluster analysis of revenues and expenses in 2015, and considering a cultural tourism ratio, economic performances and targets of social media, this paper will segment a sample of some of the largest symphony orchestras and opera houses in the United States.

Keywords

Marketing Musical tourism Social media American classical music Fundraising Cluster analysis 

Notes

References

  1. Aguiar-Quintana, T. 2015. Under-researched Areas of Event Management in the Past 15 Years. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality 4 (3): 1–8.Google Scholar
  2. Bagwell, S., D. Corry, and A. Rotheroe. 2015. The Future of Funding: Options for Heritage and Cultural Organisations. Cultural Trends 24 (1): 28–33.Google Scholar
  3. Besana, A. 2012. Alternative Resources: Revenue Diversification in the Not-for-Profit USA Symphony Orchestra. The Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society 42 (2): 79–89.Google Scholar
  4. Besana, A., A. Bagnasco, A. Esposito, and A. Calzolari. 2018. It’s a Matter of Attention. The Marketing of Theatres in the Age of Social Media. International Journal of Arts Management 20 (3): 20–37.Google Scholar
  5. Boerner, S., V. Moser, and J. Jobst. 2011. Evaluating Cultural Industries: Investigating Visitors’ Satisfaction in Theatres. The Service Industries Journal 31 (6): 877–895.Google Scholar
  6. Borgonovi, F. 2006. Do Public Grants to American Theatres Crowd-Out Private Donations? Public Choice 126: 429–451.Google Scholar
  7. Cancellieri, G., and A. Turrini. 2016. The Phantom of Modern Opera: How Economics and Politics Affect the Programming Strategies of Opera Houses. International Journal of Arts Management 18 (3): 25–36.Google Scholar
  8. Cohen, S. 2013. Musical Memory, Heritage and Local Identity: Remembering the Popular Music Past in a European Capital of Culture. International Journal of Cultural Policy 19 (5): 576–594.Google Scholar
  9. Conti, L., and C. Carriero. 2014. Facebook Marketing: Comunicare e vendere con il social network. Milan: Hoepli.Google Scholar
  10. Enright, K.P., and C. Bourns. 2010. The Case for Stakeholder Engagement. Stanford Social Innovation Review 8 (2): 40–45.Google Scholar
  11. Esposito, A. 2016. Web e Social Media per il fundraising. In Economia, Marketing e comunicazione per il nonprofit, ed. A. Besana and A. Esposito, 149–170. Milan: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  12. Gligorijevic, J. (2014). World Music festivals and tourism: a case study of Serbia’s Guca trumpet festival. International Journal of Cultural Policy 20 (2): 139–154.Google Scholar
  13. Guachalla, A. 2012. The Role of Cultural Flagships in the Perception and Experience for Tourism and Culture. Case Study: The Royal Opera House in Covent Garden. European Journal of Tourism Research 6 (1): 83–87.Google Scholar
  14. Guo, C., and G.D. Saxton. 2014. Speaking and Being Heard: How Nonprofit Advocacy Organizations Gain Attention on Social Media. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 41: 1092–1115.Google Scholar
  15. Hong, J. 2014. Data Envelopment Analysis in the Strategic Management of Youth Orchestras. The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 44 (3): 181–201.Google Scholar
  16. Jo, S., and Y. Kim. 2003. The Effect of Web Characteristics on Relationship Building. Journal of Public Relations Research 15 (3): 199–223.Google Scholar
  17. Kanter, B., and A.H. Fine. 2010. The Networked Nonprofit: Connecting with Social Media to Drive Change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  18. Kaplan, A.M., and M. Haenlein. 2010. Users of the World, Unite! The Challenges and Opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons 53 (1): 59–68.Google Scholar
  19. Kemp, E., and S.M. Poole. 2016. Arts Audiences: Establishing a Gateway to Audience Development and Engagement. The Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society 46 (2): 53–62.Google Scholar
  20. Kietzmann, J.H., K. Hermkens, I.P. McCarthy, and B.S. Silvestre. 2011. Social Media? Get Serious! Understanding the Functional Building Blocks of Social Media. Business Horizons 54 (3): 41–251.Google Scholar
  21. Kotler, P., and G. Armstrong. 2012. Principles of Marketing. Harlow: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  22. League of American Orchestras. 2009. Audience Demographic Research Review. www.americanorchestras.org. Last accessed July 2017.
  23. Lee, Y.-K., T.-L. Liu, F.-T. Chung, and H.-H. Ho. 2015. Investigating the Role of Government Policy and the Environment on Locals’ Loyalty to Spring Music Festivals. Contemporary Management Research 11 (1): 33–52.Google Scholar
  24. Liu, Y.-D. 2014. Cultural Events and Cultural Tourism Development: Lessons from the European Capitals of Culture. European Planning Studies 22 (3): 498–514.Google Scholar
  25. Lovejoy, K., and G.D. Saxton. 2012. Information, Community, and Action: How Nonprofit Organizations Use Social Media. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 17 (3): 337–353.Google Scholar
  26. Macnamara, J., and A. Zerfass. 2012. Social Media Communication in Organizations: The Challenges of Balancing Openness, Strategy, and Management. International Journal of Strategic Communication 6 (4): 287–308.Google Scholar
  27. Moretti, A., and A. Tuan. 2014. Social Media Marketing and Relationship Marketing: Revolution or Evolution? A First Step Analysis. Sinergie 93: 115–137.Google Scholar
  28. Nadeem, W. 2012. Social Customer Relationship Management (SCRM): How Connecting Social Analytics to Business Analytics Enhances Customer Care and Loyalty? International Journal of Business and Social Science 3 (21): 88–102.Google Scholar
  29. Nah, S., and G.D. Saxton. 2012. Modeling the Adoption and Use of Social Media by Nonprofit Organizations. New Media & Society 15 (2): 294–313.Google Scholar
  30. Neslin, S.A., and V. Shakar. 2009. Key Issues in Multichannel Customer Management: Current Knowledge and Future Directions. Journal of Interactive Marketing 23: 70–81.Google Scholar
  31. O’Neil, J. 2014. An Examination of Fortune 500 Companies’ and Philanthropy 200 Nonprofit Organizations’ Relationship Cultivation Strategies on Facebook. Public Relations Journal 8 (1): 1–27.Google Scholar
  32. Pierotti, M., G. Risaliti, and G. Cestari. 2014. Managing IC in an Opera House: the Case of La Scala. European Scientific Journal 10 (34): 1–22.Google Scholar
  33. Pompe, J., and L. Tamburi. 2016. Fiddling in a Vortex: Have American Orchestras Squandered Their Supremacy on the American Cultural Scene? The Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society 46 (2): 63–72.Google Scholar
  34. Poon, J.P.H., and C.A. Lai. 2008. Why are Non-profit Performing Arts Organisations Successful in Mid-sized US Cities? Urban Studies 45 (11): 2273–2289.Google Scholar
  35. Radbourne, J., K. Johanson, H. Glow, and T. White. 2009. The Audience Experience: Measuring Quality in the Performing Arts. International Journal of Arts Management 11 (3): 16–29.Google Scholar
  36. Ravanas, P. 2007. A Quiet Revolution: The Metropolitan Opera Reinvents Client Relations Management. International Journal of Arts Management 9 (3): 79–87.Google Scholar
  37. Ravanas, P. 2008. Hitting a High Note: The Chicago Symphony Orchestra Reverses a Decade of Decline with New Programs, New Services and New Prices. International Journal of Arts Management 10 (2): 68–78.Google Scholar
  38. Roberts, N. 2014. Social Media for Orchestra. Association of California Symphony Orchestras. https://www.acso.org/acso%20socmedia%20wkshop_final.pdf.
  39. Rogers, E.M. 1983. Diffusion of Innovation. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  40. Rosen J. 2017. Visions of Orchestras. Symphony, pp. 19–24.Google Scholar
  41. Ross A. 2017. The Greatness Paradox. Symphony, pp. 28–32.Google Scholar
  42. Saxton, G.D., and L. Wang. 2013. The Social Network Effect: The Determinants of Giving Through Social Media. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 43 (5): 850–868.Google Scholar
  43. Smith, T. 2007. The Impact of Government Funding on Private Contribution to Nonprofit Performing Arts Organizations. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics 78 (1): 137–160.Google Scholar
  44. Song, S., and D.T. Yi. 2011. The Fundraising Efficiency in US Non-profit Art Organizations: An Application of a Bayesian Estimation Approach Using the Stochastic Frontier Production Model. Journal of Production Analysis 35: 171–180.Google Scholar
  45. Stelzner, M.A. 2015. How Marketers are Using Social Media to Grow Their Businesses. Social Media Examiner: Social Media Marketing Industry Report.Google Scholar
  46. Tamburri, L., J. Munn, and J. Pompe. 2015. Repertoire Conventionality in Major US Symphony Orchestras: Factors Influencing Management’s Programming Choices. Managerial and Decision Economics 36: 97–108.Google Scholar
  47. Topper, E.F. 2007. Social Networking in Libraries. New Library World 108 (7/8): 378–380.Google Scholar
  48. Turbide, J., and C. Laurin. 2009. Performance Measurement in the Arts Sector: The Case of the Performing Arts. International Journal of Arts Management 11 (2): 56–70.Google Scholar
  49. Voss, Z.G., G.B. Voss, K. Yair, and K. Lega. 2016. Orchestra Facts: 2006–2014. www.americanorchestras.org. Last accessed July 2017.
  50. Waters, R.D. 2007. Nonprofit Organizations’ Use of the Internet: A Content Analysis of Communication Trends on the Internet Sites of the Philanthropy 400. Nonprofit Management and Leadership 18 (1): 59–76.Google Scholar
  51. Waters, R.D. 2010. The Use of Social Media by Nonprofit Organizations: An Examination from the Diffusion of Innovations Perspective. In Social Computing: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications, ed. R.D. Waters, 1420–1432. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.Google Scholar
  52. Waters, R.D., E. Burnett, A. Lamm, and J. Lucas. 2009. Engaging Stakeholders Through Social Networking: How Nonprofit Organizations are Using Facebook. Public Relations Review 35 (2): 102–106.Google Scholar
  53. Waters, R.D., and J.Y. Jamal. 2011. Tweet, tweet, tweet: A content analysis of non- profit organizations’ Twitter updated. Public Relations Review 37 (3): 321–324.Google Scholar
  54. Waters, R.D., and K.D. Lo. 2012. Exploring the Impact of Culture in the Social Media Sphere: A Content Analysis of Nonprofit Organizations’ Use of Facebook. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research 41 (3): 297–319.Google Scholar
  55. Woosnam, K.M., K.E. McElroy, and C.M. Van Winkle. 2009. The Role of Personal Values in Determining Tourist Motivations: An Application to the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, a Cultural Special Event. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management 18: 500–511.Google Scholar
  56. Wroblewski, L. 2017. Culture Management: Strategy and Marketing Aspects. Berlin: Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH.Google Scholar
  57. Yi, D.T. 2010. Determinants of Fundraising Efficiency of Nonprofit Organizations: Evidence from US Public Charitable Organizations. Managerial and Decision Economics 31: 465–475.Google Scholar
  58. Zickuhr, K., and M. Madden. 2012. Older Adults and Internet Use. Pew Internet & American Life Project, pp. 1–23.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© National Association for Business Economics 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IULM UniversityMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations