Parameterization and Micrometeorological Measurement of Air–Sea Gas Transfer

Abstract

Because of the combination of smallconcentrations and/or small fluxes, the determinationof air–sea gas fluxes presents unusual measurementdifficulties. Direct measurements (i.e., eddycorrelation) of the fluxes are rarely attempted. Inthe last decade, there has been an intense scientificeffort to improve measurement techniques and to placebulk parameterizations of gas transfer on firmertheoretical grounds. Oceanic tracer experiments,near-surface mean concentration profiles, eddyaccumulation, and direct eddy covariance methods haveall been used. Theoretical efforts have focusedprimarily in the realm of characterizing the transferproperties of the oceanic molecular sublayer. Recentmajor field efforts organized by the U.S.A. (GASEX-98) andthe European Union (ASGAMAGE) have yielded atmospheric-derivedresults much closer to those from oceanographicmethods. In this paper, we review the physical basisof a bulk-to-bulk gas transfer parameterization thatis generalized for solubility and Schmidt number. Wealso discuss various aspects of recent sensor andtechnique developments used for direct measurementsand demonstrate experimental progress with resultsfrom ASGAMAGE and GASEX-98. It is clear that sensornoise, sensitivity, and cross talk with other speciesand even ship motion corrections still need improvement foraccurate measurements of trace gas exchange over theocean. Significant work remains to resolve issuesassociated with the effects of waves, bubbles, andsurface films.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Andreas, E. L.: 1992, 'Sea Spray and the Turbulent Air-Sea Heat Fluxes', J. Geophys. Res.97, 11429–11441.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Andreas, E. L.: 1998, 'A New Sea Spray Generation Function for Wind Speeds Up to 32 m/s', J. Phys. Oceanog.28, 2175–2184.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Andreas, E. L. and DeCosmo, J.: 1999, 'Sea Spray Production and Influence on Air-Sea Heat and Moisture Fluxes over the Open Ocean', in G. L. Geernaert (ed.), Air-Sea Fluxes of Momentum, Heat, and Chemicals, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, to appear.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Andreas, E. L., Edson, J. B., Monahan, E. C., Rouault, M. P., and Smith, S. D.: 1995, 'The Spray Contribution to Net Evaporation from the Sea: A Review of Recent Progress', Boundary-Layer Meteorol.72, 3–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Andreas, E. L., Hill, R. J., Gosz, J. R., Moore, D. I., Otto, W. D., and Sarma, A. D.: 1998, 'Stability Dependence of the Eddy-Accumulation Coefficients for Momentum and Scalars', Boundary-Layer Meteorol.86, 409–420.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Asher, W. and Wanninkhof, R.: 1998a, 'The Effect of Bubble-Mediated Gas Transfer on Purposeful Dual-Tracer Experiments', J. Geophys. Res.103, 10555–10560.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Asher, W. and Wanninkhof, R.: 1998b, 'Transient Tracers and Air-Sea Gas Transfer', J. Geophys. Res.103, 15939–15958.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Asher, W. E., Karle, L. M., Higgins, B. J., Farley, P. J., Monahan, E. C., and Leifer, I. S.: 1996, 'The Influence of Bubble Plumes on Air-Seawater Gas Transfer Velocities', J. Geophys. Res.101, 12027–12041.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Auble, D. L. and Meyers, T. P.: 1992, 'An Open Path, Fast Response Infrared Absorption Gas Analyzer for H2O and CO2', Boundary-Layer Meteorol.59, 243–256.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bakan, S.: 1978, 'Note on the Eddy Correlation Method for CO2 Flux Measurements', Boundary-Layer Meteorol.13, 597–600.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Baldocchi, D. D., Hicks, B. B., and Meyers, T. P.: 1988, 'Measuring Biosphere-Atmosphere Exchanges of Biologically Related Gases with Micrometeorological Methods', Ecology69, 1331–1340.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Beljaars, A. C. M.: 1994, 'The Parameterization of Surface Fluxes in Large-Scale Models under Free Convection', Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc.121, 255–270.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Blanc, T. V.: 1983, 'An Error Analysis of Profile Flux, Stability, and Roughness Length Measurements Made in the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer', Boundary-Layer Meteorol.26, 243–267.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Blanc, T. V.: 1985, 'Variation of Bulk-Derived Surface Flux, Stability, and Roughness Results Due To the Use of Different Transfer Coefficient Schemes', J. Phys. Oceanog.15, 650–669.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Broecker, W. S. and Peng, T.-H.: 1974, 'Gas Exchange Rates between Air and Sea', Tellus24, 21–35.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Broecker, W. S., Ledwell, J. R., Takahashi, T., Weiss, L. M. R., Memery, L., Peng, T.-H., Jahne, B., and Munnich, K. O.: 1986, 'Isotopic versus Micrometeorological Ocean CO2 Fluxes: A Serious Conflict', J. Geophys. Res.91, 10517–10527.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Brutsaert, W.: 1982, Evaporation into the Atmosphere, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 299 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Businger, J. A.: 1982, 'Equations and Concepts', in G. T. M. Nieuwstadt and H. v. Dop (eds.), Atmospheric Turbulence and Air Pollution Modelling, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 1–33.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Businger, J. A.: 1986, 'Evaluation of the Accuracy with which Dry Deposition can be Measured with Current Micrometeorological Techniques', J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol.25, 1100–1123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Businger, J. A. and Delaney, A. C.: 1990, 'Chemical Sensor Resolution Required for Measuring Surface Fluxes by Three Common Micrometeorological Techniques', J. Atm. Chem.19, 399–310.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Businger, J. A. and Oncley, S. P.: 1990, 'Flux Measurement with Conditional Sampling', J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech.7, 349–352.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Chamberlain, A. C.: 1968, 'Transportation of Gases to and from Surfaces with Bluff and Wave Like Roughness Elements', Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc.94, 318–332.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Clayson, C. A., Curry, J. A., and Fairall, C. W.: 1996, 'Evaluation of Turbulent Fluxes at the Ocean Surface Using Surface Renewal Theory', J. Geophys. Res.101, 28503–28513.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Coantic, M.: 1980, 'Mass Transfer Across the Ocean-Air Interface: Small Scale Hydrodynamic and Aerodynamic Mechanisms', Phys. Chem. Hydrodyn.1, 249–279.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Csanady, G. T.: 1990, 'The Role of Breaking Wavelets in Air-Sea Gas Transfer', J. Geophys. Res.95, 749–759.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Dissly, R., Smith, J., and Tans, P.: 1998, 'Final Report on the NOAA/CMDL Contribution to ASGAMAGE-B', in O. Oost (ed.), Proceedings of the ASGAMAGE Workshop, KNMI, De Bilt, the Netherlands, 22–25 September, 1997, pp. 51–72.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Donelan, M. A. and Drennan, W. M.: 1995, 'Direct Field Measurements of the Flux of Carbon Dioxide', in B. Jahne and E. C. Monahan (eds.), Air-Water Gas Transfer, AEON Verlag & Studio, Hanau, Germany, pp. 677–683.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Edson, J. B. and Fairall, C. W.: 1998, 'Similarity Relationships in the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer for Terms in the TKE and Scalar Variance Budgets', J. Atmos. Sci.55, 2311–2328.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Edson, J. B., Fairall, C. W., Mestayer, P. G., and S. E. Larsen: 1991, 'A Study of the Inertial-Dissipation Method for Computing Air-Sea Fluxes', J. Geophys. Res.96, 10689–10711.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Edson, J. B., Wetzel, S., Friehe, C. A., Miller, S., and Hristov, T.: 1997, 'Energy Flux and Dissipation Profiles in the Marine Surface Layer', in Proceedings of the 12th Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, 28 July-1 August, American Meteorology Society, Vancouver, BC.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Esbensen, S. K. and Reynolds, R. W.: 1981, 'Estimating Monthly Averaged Air-Sea Transfers of Heat and Momentum Using the Bulk Aerodynamic Method', J. Phys. Oceanog.11, 457–465.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Fairall, C.W.: 1984, 'Interpretation of Eddy-Correlation Measurements of Particulate Deposition and Aerosol Flux', Atmos. Environ.18, 1329–1337.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Fairall, C. W. and Larsen, S. E.: 1986, 'Inertial-Dissipation Methods and Turbulent Fluxes at the Air-Ocean Interface', Boundary-Layer Meteorol.34, 287–301.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Fairall, C. W., Bradley, E. F., Rogers, D. P., Edson, J. B., and Young, G. S.: 1996a, 'Bulk Parameterization of Air-Sea Fluxes for TOGA COARE', J. Geophys. Res.101, 3747–3764.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Fairall, C.W., Bradley, E. F., Godfrey, J. S., Wick, G. A., Edson, J. B., and Young, G. S.: 1996b, 'Cool Skin and Warm Layer Effects on Sea Surface Temperature', J. Geophys. Res.101, 1295–1308.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Fairall, C. W., Hare, J. E., Smith, S. D., Anderson, R. A., and Kohsiek, W.: 1997, 'Preliminary Analysis of CO2 Flux Data from ASGAMAGE-B', in Proceedings of the 12th Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 28 July-1 August, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 413–414.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Frew, N. M.: 1997, 'The Role of Organic Films in Air-Sea Gas Exchange', in P. S. Liss and R. A. Duce (eds.), The Sea Surface and Global Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., pp. 121–172.

  38. Fujitani, T.: 1985, 'Method of Turbulent Flux Measurement on a Ship by Using a Stable Platform System', J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan36, 157–170.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Garratt, J. R.: 1992, The Atmospheric Boundary Layer, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 316 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Geernaert, G. L.: 1990, 'Bulk Parameterizations for the Wind Stress and Heat Fluxes', in G. L. Geernaert and W. J. Plant (eds.), Surface Waves and Fluxes, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 91–172.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Godfrey, J. S. and Beljaars, A. C. M.: 1991, 'On the Turbulent Fluxes of Buoyancy, Heat, and Moisture at the Air-Sea Interface at Low Wind Speeds', J. Geophys. Res.96, 22043–22048.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Hanawa, K. and Toba, Y.: 1987, 'Critical Examination of Estimation Methods of Long-Term Mean Air-Sea Heat and Momentum Transfers', Ocean Air Interactions1, 79–93.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Hasse, L.: 1990, 'On the Mechanism of Gas Exchange at the Air-Sea Interface', Tellus42B, 250–253.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Hasse, L. and Liss, P. S.: 1980, 'Gas Exchange across the Air-Sea Interface', Tellus32, 470–481.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Hausecker, H. and Jahne, B.: 1995, 'In situ Measurements of the Air-Sea Gas Transfer Rate during the MBL/CoOP West Coast Experiment', in B. Jahne and E. C. Monahan (eds.), Air-Water Gas Transfer, AEON Verlag & Studio, Hanau, Germany, pp. 775–784.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Hicks, B. B. and McMillen, R. T.: 1984, 'A Simulation of the Eddy Accumulation Method for Measuring Pollutant Fluxes', J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol.23, 637–643.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Horst, T. W. and Weil, J. C.: 1994, 'How Far Is Far Enough?: The Fetch Requirements for Micrometeorological Measurement of Surface Fluxes', J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech.11, 1018–1025.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Hunter, K. A.: 1997, 'Chemistry of the Sea-Surface Microlayer', in P. S. Liss and R. A. Duce (eds.), The Sea Surface and Global Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., pp. 287–320.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Jahne, B. and Hausecker, H.: 1998, 'Air-Water Gas Exchange', Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.30, 443–468.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Jahne, B. and Monahan, E. C.: 1995, Air-Water Gas Transfer, International Symposium on Air-Water Gas Transfer, AEON, Hanau, Germany, 910 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Jodwalis, C. M. and Benner, R. L.: 1996, 'Sulfur Gas Fluxes and Horizontal Inhomogeneities in the Marine Boundary Layer', J. Geophys. Res.101, 4393–4401.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Kaimal, J. C. and Finnigan, J. J.: 1994, Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows-Their Structure and Measurment, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 400 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Kaimal, J. C., Clifford, S. F., and Lataitis, R. J.: 1989, 'Effect of Finite Sampling on Atmospheric Spectra', Boundary-Layer Meteorol.47, 337–347.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Keeling, R. F.: 1993, 'On the Role of Large Bubbles in Air-Sea Gas Exchange and Supersaturation in the Ocean', J. Mar. Res.51, 237–271.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Kepert, J. and Fairall, C. W.: 1999, 'Modeling the Interaction between the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Evaporating Sea Spray Droplets', in G. L. Geernaert (ed.), Air-Sea Fluxes of Momentum, Heat, and Chemicals, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, in press.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Kohsiek, W.: 1991, 'Infrared H2O/CO2 Sensor with Fiber Optics', in Proceedings of the Seventh Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 14–18 January, New Orleans, LA, pp. 352–355.

  57. Kohsiek, W.: 1998a, 'Measurement of CO2 Flux with IFM during ASGAMAGE', in W. Oost (ed.), Proceedings of the ASGAMAGE Workshop, 22–25 September, KNMI, De Bilt, the Netherlands, 1997, pp. 33–37.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Kohsiek, W.: 1998b, Water Vapor Cross-Sensitivity of Open Path H 2O/CO 2sensors, Report 98–15, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, the Netherlands, 20 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Kraus, E. B. and Businger, J. A.: 1994, Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction, Oxford, New York, 352 pp.

  60. Kristensen, L., Mann, J., Oncley, S. P., and Wyngaard, J. C.: 1997, 'How Close Is Close Enough when Measuring Scalar Fluxes with Displaced Sensors', J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech.14, 814–821.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Lamont, J. C. and Scott, D. S.: 1970, 'An Eddy Cell Model of Mass Transfer into the Surface of a Turbulent Liquid', A.I.Ch.E. J.16, 513–519.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Larsen, S. E., Hansen, F. A., Kjeld, J. F., Lund, S. W., Kunz, G., and deLeeuw, G.: 1997, 'Experimental and Modeling Study of Air-Sea Exchange of Carbon Dioxide', in W. A. Ooost (ed.), Proceedings of the ASGAMAGE Workshop, Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, the Netherlands, pp. 116–123.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Lee, X. and Black, T. A.: 1994, 'Relating Eddy Correlation Sensible Heat Flux to Horizontal Sensor Separation in the Unstable Atmospheric Surface Layer', J. Geophys. Res.99, 18545–18553.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Lee, X., Black, T. A., and Novak, M. D.: 1994, 'Comparison of Flux Measurements with Open-and Closed-Path Gas Analyzers above an Agricultural Field and a Forest Floor', Boundary-Layer Meteorol.67, 195–202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Lenschow, D. H.: 1995, 'Micrometeorological Techniques for Measuring Biosphere-Atmosphere Trace Gas Exchange', in P. Mataon and R. Harris (eds.), Biogenic Trace Gases: Measuring Emissions from Soil and Water, Blackwell Science, Cambridge, MA, pp. 126–163.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Leuning, R. and Judd, M. J.: 1996, 'The Relative Merits of Open-and Closed-Path Analysers for the Measurement of Eddy Fluxes', Global Change Biol.2, 241–253.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Leuning, R. and King, K. M.: 1992, 'Comparison of Eddy-Covariance Measurements of CO2 Fluxes by Open-and Closed-Path CO2 Analysers', Boundary-Layer Meteorol.59, 297–311.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Leuning, R. and Moncrieff, J.: 1990, 'Eddy-Covariance CO2 Flux Measurements Using Open-and Closed-Path CO2 Analysers: Corrections for Analyser Water Vapour Sensitivity and Damping of Fluctuations in Air Sampling Tubes', Boundary-Layer Meteorol.53, 63–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Liss, P. S.: 1973, 'Processes of Gas Exchange Across an Air-Water Interface', Deep-Sea Res.20, 221–228.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Liss, P. S. and Merlivat, L.: 1986, 'Air-Sea Gas Exchange Rates: Introduction and Synthesis', in P. Buat-Manard (ed.), The Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycles, D. Reidel, Norwell, MA, pp. 113–127.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Liu, W. T., Katsaros, K. B., and Businger, J. A.: 1979, 'Bulk Parameterization of the Air-Sea Exchange of Heat and Water Vapor Including the Molecular Constraints at the Interface', J. Atmos. Sci.36, 1722–1735.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Mahrt, L., Vickers, D., Howell, J., Hojstrup, J., Courtney, M., Wilczak, J. M., Edson, J. B., and Hare, J.: 1996, 'Surface Drag Coefficients in RASEX', Boundary-Layer Meteorol.73, 159–182.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Mangarella, P. A., Chambers, A. J., Street, R. L., and Hsu, E. Y.: 1973, 'Laboratory Studies of Evaporation and Energy Transfer through a Wavy Air-Water Interface', J. Phys. Oceanog.3, 93–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. McGillis, W. R. and Edson, J. B.: 1997, An Investigation of Gas Transfer Coefficients Using Direct Estimates of the CO 2Flux, WHOI,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, 18 pp.

  75. McGillis, W. R., Edson, J. B., Ware, J. D., Dacey, J. W. H., Hare, J. E., Fairall, C.W., and Wanninkhof, R.: 1999, 'Carbon Dioxide Flux Techniques Performed during GasEx98', J. Marine Chem., in revision.

  76. Mestayer, P. G. and Rebattet, C.: 1985, 'Temperature Sensitivity of Lyman-Alpha Hygrometers', J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech.2, 20–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Monahan, E. C. and Torgeresen, T.: 1991, 'The Enhancement of Air-Sea has Exchange by Oceanic Whitecapping', in S. C. Wilhelms and J. S. Gulliver (eds.), Air-Water Mass Transfer: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, pp. 608–617.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Ocampo-Torres, F.J. and Donelan, M. A.: 1994, 'Laboratory Measurements of Mass Transfer of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour for Smooth and Rough Flow Conditions', Tellus46B, 16–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Ohtaki, E. and Matsui, T.: 1982, 'Infrared Device for Simultaneous Measurement of Fluctuations of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor', Boundary-Layer Meteorol.24, 109–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. O'Muircheartaigh, I. and Monahan, E. C.: 1986, 'Statistical Aspects of the Relationship between Oceanic Whitecap Coverage, Wind Speed, and Other Environmental Factors', in E. C. Monahan and G. M. Niocaill (eds.), Oceanic Whitecaps, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 125–128.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Oncley, S. P., Delaney, A. C., and Horst, T. W.: 1993, 'Verification of Flux Measurement Using Relaxed Eddy Accumulation', Atmos. Environ.27A, 2417–2426.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Oost, W.: 1995, 'The ASGASEX'93 Experiment', in B. Jahne and E. C. Monahan (eds.), Air-Water Gas Transfer, AEON Verlag & Studio, Hanau, Germany, pp. 811–816.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Oost, W.: 1998, The ASGAMAGE Workshop, Report 98–02, KNMI, De Bilt, the Netherlands, 126 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Oost, W. A., Fairall, C. W., Edson, J. B., Smith, S. D., Anderson, R. J., Wills, J. A. B., Katsaros, K. B., and DeCosmo, J.: 1994, 'Flow Distortion Calculations and their Application in HEXMAX', J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.11, 366–386.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Panofsky, H. A.: 1963, 'Determination of Stress fromWind and Temperature Measurements', Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc, 89, 85–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Panofsky, H. A. and Dutton, J. A.: 1984, Atmospheric Turbulence, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 397 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Paulson, C. A.: 1970, 'The Mathematical Representation ofWind Speed and Temperature Profiles in the Unstable Atmospheric Surface Layer', J. Appl. Meteorol.9, 857–861.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Rannik, U., Vesala, T., and Keskinen, R.: 1997, 'On the Damping of Temperature Fluctuations in a Circular Tube Relevant to the Eddy Covariance Measurement Technique', J. Geophys. Res.102, 12789–12794.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Reichardt, H.: 1951, '—Vollstandige Darstellung der turbulenten Geschwindigkeitsverteilung in glatten Leitungen', Z. Angew. Math. Mech.31, 208–219.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Schmitt, K. F., Friehe, C. A., and Gibson, C. H.: 1978, 'Humidity Sensitivity of Atmospheric Temperature Sensors by Salt Contamination', J. Phys. Oceanog.8, 141–161.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Simpson, I. J., Edwards, G. C., Thurtell, G. W., denHartog, G., Neumann, H. H., and Staebler, R. M.: 1997, 'Micrometeorological Measurements of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Exchange above a Boreal Aspen Forste', J. Geophys. Res.102, 29331–29341.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Smith, S. D.: 1988, 'Coefficients for Sea Surface Wind Stress, Heat Flux, and Wind Profiles as a Function of Wind Speed and Temperature', J. Geophys. Res.93, 15,467–15,472.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Smith, S. D. and Jones, E. P.: 1985, 'Evidence for Wind-Pumping of Air-Sea Gas Exchange Based on Direct Measurements of CO2 Fluxes', J. Geophys. Res.90, 869–875.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Smith, S. D. and Jones, E. P.: 1986, 'Isotopic and Micrometeorological Ocean CO2 Fluxes: Different Time and Space Scales', J. Geophys. Res.91, 10529–10532.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Smith, S. D., Anderson, R. J., Jones, E. P., Desjardins, R. L., Moore, R. M., Hertzman, O., and Johnson, B. D.: 1991, 'A New Measurement of CO2 Eddy Flux in the Nearshore Amtospheric Surface Layer', J. Geophys. Res.96, 8881–8887.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Smith, S. D., Fairall, C. W., Geernaert, G. L., and Hasse, L.: 1996, 'Air-Sea Fluxes: 25 Years of Progress', Boundary-Layer Meteorol.78, 247–290.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Soloviev, A. V. and Schluessel, P.: 1994, 'Parameterization of the Cool-Skin of the Ocean and of the Air-Ocean Transfer on the Basis of Modeling Surface Renewal', J. Phys. Oceanog.24, 1377–1416.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Terray, E. A., Donelan, M. A., Agrawal, Y. C., Drennan, W. M., Kahma, K. K. A. J., Williams, I., Hwang, P. A., and Kitaigorodskii, S. A.: 1996, 'Estimates of Kinetic Energy Dissipation under Breaking Waves', J. Phys. Oceanog.26, 792–807.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Toba, Y.: 1965, 'On the Giant Sea-Salt Particles in the Atmosphere. II-Theory of the Vertical Distribution in the 10-m Layer over the Ocean', Tellus17, 365–382.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Tong, C., Wyngaard, J. C., Khanna, S., and Brasseur, J. G.: 1998, 'Resolvable-and Subgrid-Scale Measurements in the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Techniques and Issues', J. Atmos. Sci.55, 3114–3126.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Vickers, D. and Esbensen, S. K.: 1998, 'Subgrid Surface Fluxes in Fair Weather Conditions during TOGA COARE: Observational Estimates and Parameterization', Mon. Wea. Rev.126, 620–633.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Wanninkhof, R.: 1992, 'Relationship Between Wind Speed and Gas Exchange over the Ocean', J. Geophys. Res.97, 7373–7382.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Weare, B. C. and Strub, P. T.: 1982, 'The Significance of Sampling Biases on Calculated Monthly Mean Oceanic Surface Heat Fluxes', Tellus33, 211–224.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Webb, E. K., Pearman, G. I., and Leuning, R.: 1980, 'Correction of Flux Measurements for Density Effects Due To Heat and Vapor Transfer', Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc.106, 85–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Wesely, M. L.: 1986, 'Response to “Isotopic Versus Micrometeorologic Ocean CO2 Fluxes: A Serious Conflict”, by W. Broecker et al.', J. Geophys. Res.91, 10533–10535.

  106. Wesely, M. L., Cook, D. R., Hart, R. L., and Williams, R. M.: 1982, 'Air-Sea Exchange of CO2 and Evidence for Enhanced Upward Fluxes', J. Geophys. Res.87, 8827–8832.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Woolf, D. K.: 1997, 'Bubbles and their Role in Gas Exchange', in R. A. Duce and P. S. Liss (eds.), The Sea Surface and Global Change, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, pp. 173–205.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Wyngaard, J. C.: 1973, 'On Surface-Layer Turbulence', in D. A. Haugen (ed.), Workshop on Micrometeorology, Amer. Meteorol. Soc., pp. 101–149.

  109. Wyngaard, J. C.: 1990, 'Scalar Fluxes in the Planetary Boundary Layer-Theory, Modeling, and Measurement', Boundary-Layer Meteorol.50, 49–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Wyngaard, J. C., Izumi, I., and Collins, S. A.: 1971, 'Behavior of the Refractive Index Structure Parameter near the Ground', J. Opt. Soc. Amer.61, 1646–1650.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Yelland, M. J., Taylor, P. K., Consterdine, I. E., and Smith, M. H.: 1994, 'The Use of the Inertial Dissipation Technique for Shipboard Wind Stress Determination', J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.11, 1093–1108.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Zeng, X., Zhao, M., and Dickinson, R. E.: 1998, 'Comparison of Bulk Aerodynamic Algorithms for the Computation of Sea Surface Fluxes Using the TOGA COARE Data', J. Clim.11, 2628–2644.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  113. Zulauf, M. and Krueger, S. K.: 1997, 'Parameterization of Mesoscale Enhancement of Large-Scale Surface Flxues over Tropical Oceans', in Proceedings of the 12th Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, American Meteorological Society, 28 July-1 August, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 1997, pp. 494–495.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Fairall, C.W., Hare, J.E., Edson, J.B. et al. Parameterization and Micrometeorological Measurement of Air–Sea Gas Transfer. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 96, 63–106 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1002662826020

Download citation

  • Gas flux
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Air–sea interaction
  • Diffusion sublayer
  • Turbulent transport