In Vitro Fertilization Treatment for Severe Male Factor: A Comparative Study of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection with Testicular Sperm Extraction and with Spermatozoa from Ejaculate
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Purpose: Our purpose was to evaluate whether the source of spermatozoa influences the results of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment in couples with severe malefactor infertility.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of 40 cases of ICSI with testicular-retrieved spermatozoa, matched with 40 cases of ICSI with ejaculated spermatozoa, was performed. We included only couples with normoovulatory females younger than 37 years who were matched according to the day of ovum pickup with the patients in the study group.
Results: Eighty cycles were analyzed: 40 cycles using testicular spermatozoa and 40 cycles using ejaculated spermatozoa. In 32 (80%) of the 40 ICSI transcutaneous needle aspiration cycles, we obtained enough spermatozoa to inject all the mature oocytes retrieved. In eight (20%) cases there were not enough spermatozoa to inject all the oocytes. Only 76 (54%) of 141 available oocytes were injected in these eight patients. The oocyte fertilization rates were 42% for the study group and 55.5% for the controls (P < 0.005). Thirty-six (90%) patients in the group with nonobstructive a zoospermia (NOA) and 37 (92.5%) patients in the oligoteratoasthenospermia (OTA) group had embryos for replacement. The mean cleavage rates per cycle (96% with tasticular and 93% with ejaculated spermatozoa), the mean number of embryos per transfer (3.72 ± 1.6 in the NOA group and 4.24 ±1.5 in the OTA group), the embryo quality (cumulative embryo scoring = 34.03 ± 22.62 in the testicular sperm group and 36.08 ± 19.28 in the ejaculated sperm group), and the clinical pregnancy rates (22.5% in the NOA patients and 20% in the ejaculate group) were not significantly different between groups.
Conclusions: High fertilization, cleavage, and pregnancy rates can be achieved with intracytoplasmic testicular sperm injection from patients with NOA, reaching levels comparable with those of ICSI using ejaculated spermatozoa.
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