# Bound States in Quantum Electrodynamics: Theory and Application

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## Abstract

The basic methods that have been used for describing bound-state quantum electrodynamics are described and critically discussed. These include the external field approximation, the quasi-potential approaches, the effective potential approach, the Bethe–Salpeter method, and the three-dimensional equations of Lepage and other workers. Other methods less frequently used but of some intrinsic interest such as applications of the Duffin–Kemmer equation are also described. A comparison of the strengths and shortcomings of these various approaches is included.

bound states quantum electrodynamics

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© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002