Foundations of Physics

, Volume 32, Issue 9, pp 1347–1398 | Cite as

From the Geometry of Pure Spinors with Their Division Algebras to Fermion Physics

  • Paolo Budinich


The Cartan equations defining simple spinors (renamed “pure” by C. Chevalley) are interpreted as equations of motion in compact momentum spaces, in a constructive approach in which at each step the dimensions of spinor space are doubled while those of momentum space increased by two. The construction is possible only in the frame of the geometry of simple or pure spinors, which imposes contraint equations on spinors with more than four components, and then momentum spaces result compact, isomorphic to invariant-mass-spheres imbedded in each other, since the signatures result steadily Lorentzian; starting from dimension four (Minkowski) up to dimension ten with Clifford algebra ℂℓ(1, 9), where the construction naturally ends. The equations of motion met in the construction are most of those traditionally postulated ad hoc: from Weyl equations for neutrinos (and Maxwell's) to Majorana ones, to those for the electroweak model and for the nucleons interacting with the pseudoscalar pion, up to those for the 3 baryon-lepton families, steadily progressing from the description of lower energy phenomena to that of higher ones. The 3 division algebras: complex numbers, quaternions and octonions appear to be strictly correlated with Clifford algebras and then with this spinor-geometrical approach, from which they appear to gradually emerge in the construction, where they play a basic role for the physical interpretation: at the third step complex numbers generate U(1), possible origin of the electric charge and of the existence of charged—neutral fermion pairs, explaining also easily the opposite charges of proton-electron. Another U(1) appears to generate the strong charge at the fourth step. Quaternions generate the signature of space-time at the first step, the SU(2) internal symmetry of isospin and, in the gauge term, the SU(2) L one, of the electroweak model at the third step; they are also at the origin of 3 families; in number equal to that of quaternion imaginary units. At the fifth and last step octonions generate the SU(3) internal symmetry of flavour, with SU(2) isospin subgroup and, in the gauge term, the one of color, correlated with SU(2) L of the electroweak model. These 3 division algebras seem then to be at the origin of charges, families and of the groups of the Standard model. In this approach there seems to be no need of higher dimensional (>4) space-time, here generated by the four Poincaré translations, and dimensional reduction from ℂℓ(1,9) to ℂℓ(1,3) is equivalent to decoupling of the equations of motion. This spinor-geometrical approach is compatible with that based on strings, since these may be expressed bilinearly (as integrals) in terms of Majorana–Weyl simple or pure spinors which are admitted by ℂℓ(1, 9) = R(32).

pure spinors division algebras fermion physics 


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© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Budinich
    • 1
  1. 1.International School for Advanced StudiesTriesteItaly

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