Effect of climate change on greenhouse gas emissions from arable crop rotations
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The DAISY soil–plant–atmosphere model was used to simulate crop production and soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) turnover for three arable crop rotations on a loamy sand in Denmark under varying temperature, rainfall, atmospheric CO2 concentration and N fertilization. The crop rotations varied in proportion of spring sown crops and use of N catch crops (ryegrass). The effects on CO2 emissions were estimated from simulated changes in soil C. The effects on N2O emissions were estimated using the IPCC methodology from simulated amounts of N in crop residues and N leaching. Simulations were carried out using the original and a revised parameterization of the soil C turnover. The use of the revised model parameterization increased the soil C and N turnover in the topsoil under baseline conditions, resulting in an increase in crop N uptake of 11 kg N ha–1 y–1 in a crop rotation with winter cereals and a reduction of 16 kg N ha–1 y–1 in a crop rotation with spring cereals and catch crops. The effect of increased temperature, rainfall and CO2 concentration on N flows was of the same magnitude for both model parameterizations. Higher temperature and rainfall increased N leaching in all crop rotations, whereas effects on N in crop residues depended on use of catch crops. The total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission increased with increasing temperature. The increase in total GHG emission was 66–234 kg CO2-eq ha–1 y–1 for a temperature increase of 4 °C. Higher rainfall increased total GHG emissions most in the winter cereal dominated rotation. An increase in rainfall of 20% increased total GHG emissions by 11–53 kg CO2-eq ha–1 y–1, and a 50% increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration decreased emissions by 180–269 kg CO2-eq ha–1 y–1. The total GHG emissions increased considerably with increasing N fertilizer rate for a crop rotation with winter cereals, but remained unchanged for a crop rotation with spring cereals and catch crops. The simulated increase in GHG emissions with global warming can be effectively mitigated by including more spring cereals and catch crops in the rotation.
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