Advertisement

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 70, Issue 2, pp 241–247 | Cite as

Revegetation of eroded land and possibilities of carbon sequestration in Iceland

  • Anna María Ágústsdóttir
Article

Abstract

Carbon (C) sequestration within the context of the Kyoto protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has great potential as an incentive for combating land degradation and desertification. Desertification continues to be a major threat to Iceland's natural resources. Revegetation in Iceland can both reduce C in the atmosphere by fixing C in vegetation and soil, and also reduce C emission by preventing further ecosystem damage, vegetation degradation and subsequent soil erosion. The sequestration potential in Iceland lies in the available land area and in the soil properties. Iceland has vast areas where vegetation can be enhanced or restored (10 000–45 000 km2), and the Andic nature of Icelandic soils tends to immobilize C. In the year 2001 the Soil Conservation Service worked on revegetation of roughly 13 000 ha or 130 km2, resulting in C sequestration of about 8000–14000 Mg C in 2001. Reclamation of degraded land through changed land use, and/or seeding and fertilizing can promote sustainable development and healthier ecosystems, increase biological diversity and soil fertility, in addition to mitigating climate change through C sequestration.

Andisols Carbon sequestration Degraded land Iceland Kyoto Rehabilitation Restoration Revegetation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aradóttir Á.L., Svavarsdóttir K., Jónsson T.H. and Gudbergsson G. 2000. Carbon accumulation in vegetation and soils by reclamation of degraded areas. Icel. Agr. Sci. 13: 99–113.Google Scholar
  2. Arnalds A. 1999. Incentives for soil conservation in Iceland. In: Sanders D., Huszar P.C., Sombatpanit S. and Enters T. (eds), Incentives in Soil Conservation. Science Publishers, Inc. on behalf of WASWC, IBSRAM, SWSCT and DLD, Bangkok, Enfield, New Hampshire, pp. 135–150.Google Scholar
  3. Arnalds A. 2000. Evolution of rangeland conservation strategies. In: Arnalds O. and Archer S. (eds), Rangeland Desertification. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 153–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnalds O., Aradóttir Á.L., Snorrason A., Gudbergsson G., Jónsson T.H. and ÁgÚstsdóttir A.M. 1999. Organic carbon sequestration by restoration of severely degraded areas in Iceland. Preliminary results. Fjölrit Rala 197: 19.Google Scholar
  5. Arnalds O., Gudbergsson G. and Gudmundsson J. 2000. Carbon sequestration and reclamation of severely degraded soils in Iceland. Icel. Agr. Sci. 13: 87–97.Google Scholar
  6. Arnalds O., Hallmark C.T. and Wilding L.P. 1995. Andisols from four different regions of Iceland. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 59: 161–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arnalds O. and Kimble J. 2001. Andisols of deserts in Iceland. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65: 1778–1786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arnalds O., Thórarinsdóttir E.F., MetÚsalemsson S., Jónsson Á., Grétarsson E. and Árnason A. 2001a. Soil erosion in Iceland. (English translation, originally published in Icelandic 1997). Soil Conservation Service, Agriculture Research Institute, Reykjavík, Iceland.Google Scholar
  9. Arnalds O. 2004. Volcanic soils of Iceland. In: Arnalds O. and Stahr K. (eds), Volcanic Soil Resources. Occurrence, Development and Properties. Catena 56 (special issue): 3–20.Google Scholar
  10. Arnalds Ó., Gísladottir F.Ó. and Sigurjónsson H. 2001b. Sandy deserts of Iceland: an overview. J. Arid Environ. 47(3): 359–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arnalds Ó. and Grétarsson E. 2001. Soil map of Iceland. 2nd edition. Agricultural Research Institute (RALA), Reykjavík, Iceland.Google Scholar
  12. Batjes N.H. 1999. Management options for reducing CO2-concentrations in the atmosphere by increasing carbon sequestration in the soil. Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change, Technical Paper 30. International Soil Reference and Information Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  13. Bjarnason H. 1942. ÁbÚ og örtrö. Ársrit Skógræktarfélags Íslands 1942: 8–40 (In Icelandic).Google Scholar
  14. Bruce J.P., Frome M., Haites E., Joanne H., Lal R. and Paustian K. 1999. Carbon sequestration in soils. J. Soil Water Conserv. 54: 382–389.Google Scholar
  15. Einarsson M.Á. 1976. Climate of Iceland (In Icelandic).I unn, Reykjavík, Iceland.Google Scholar
  16. Fridriksson S. and Sigurdsson F.H. 1983. The effect of air-temperature on grass growth (In Icelandic with English summary). J. Agr. Res. Icel. 15(1–2): 41–54.Google Scholar
  17. Gudjónsson G. and Gíslason E. 1998. Vegetation Map of Iceland. 1: 500.000. General Overview. (1st edition). Icelandic Institute of Natural History, Reykjavik, Iceland.Google Scholar
  18. Hoffert M.I., Caldeira K., Benford G., Criswell D.R., Green C., Herzog H. et al. 2002. Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: Energy for a greenhouse planet. Science 298: 981–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kennett S.A. 2002. National policies for biosphere greenhouse gas management: Issues and opportunities. Environ. Manage. 30: 595–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. MagnÚsson B., MagnÚsson S.H. and Sigurdsson B.D. 2001. Vegetation succession in areas colonized by the introduced Nootka lupin (Lupinus nootkatensis) in Iceland (In Icelandic with extended English summary). Fjölrit Rala 207: 100.Google Scholar
  21. Marland G., McCarl B.A. and Schneider U. 2001. Soil carbon: Policy and economics. Clim. Change 51(1): 101–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ministry for the Environment in Iceland 2002. The Policy of the Icelandic Government regarding mitigation approaches towards obligations of the FCCC and the Kyoto Protocol (In Icelandic). Retrieved 29.10.02 from http://umhverfisraduneyti.is/interpro/ umh/umh.nsf/pages/stefnumorkun.Google Scholar
  23. Ministry of Agriculture 2001. Lokaskýrsla verkefnisstjórnar um átak í landgræ slu og skógrækt. (In Icelandic). Land-bÚna arrá uneyti (Ministry of Agriculture), Reykjavik, Iceland.Google Scholar
  24. Óskarsson Ú. 2000. Carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. Program report 1999. (In Icelandic with extended English summary). Verkefnisstjórn átaks í landgræ slu og skógrækt 1997–2000.Google Scholar
  25. Post W.M. 1993. Organic carbon in soils and the global carbon cycle. In: Heimann M. and Pearman G. (eds), The Global Carbon Cycle. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  26. Runólfsson S. 1978. Soil conservation in Iceland. In: Holdgate M.W. and Woodman M.J. (eds), The Breakdown and Restoration of Ecosystems. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, pp. 231–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Runólfsson S. 1987. Land Reclamation in Iceland. Arctic Alpine Res. 19: 514–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. UNEP 1992. Convention on Biological Diversity, Convention Text. http://www.biodiv.org/convention/articles.asp.Google Scholar
  29. United Nations 1994. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa. United Nations, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna María Ágústsdóttir
    • 1
  1. 1.Soil Conservation ServiceGunnarsholtIceland

Personalised recommendations